Effects of Implementation Intentions on Anxiety, Perceived Proximity, and Motor Performance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Anxiety leads to exaggerated perceptions of distance, which may impair performance on a physical task. In two studies, we tested one strategy to reduce anxiety and induce perceived proximity to increase performance. We predicted implementation intentions that reduce anxiety would increase perceived visual proximity to goal-relevant targets, which would indirectly improve performance. In two studies, we induced performance anxiety on a physical task. Participants who formed implementation intentions to reduce anxiety perceived goal-relevant targets (e.g., golf hole, dartboard) as physically closer and performed better than both participants without a strategy (Study 1) and participants with only a goal to regulate anxiety (Study 2). Furthermore, perceived proximity improved performance indirectly by increasing subjective task ease (Study 2). Results suggest that implementation intentions can reduce anxiety and lead to perceived proximity of goal-relevant targets, which helps perceivers make progress on goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)623-635
Number of pages13
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume39
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Anxiety
Distance Perception
Performance Anxiety
Golf

Keywords

  • implementation intentions
  • sports performance
  • visual perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

Cite this

@article{7f68b659bf044bcf9c0ad8fd34dfdbee,
title = "Effects of Implementation Intentions on Anxiety, Perceived Proximity, and Motor Performance",
abstract = "Anxiety leads to exaggerated perceptions of distance, which may impair performance on a physical task. In two studies, we tested one strategy to reduce anxiety and induce perceived proximity to increase performance. We predicted implementation intentions that reduce anxiety would increase perceived visual proximity to goal-relevant targets, which would indirectly improve performance. In two studies, we induced performance anxiety on a physical task. Participants who formed implementation intentions to reduce anxiety perceived goal-relevant targets (e.g., golf hole, dartboard) as physically closer and performed better than both participants without a strategy (Study 1) and participants with only a goal to regulate anxiety (Study 2). Furthermore, perceived proximity improved performance indirectly by increasing subjective task ease (Study 2). Results suggest that implementation intentions can reduce anxiety and lead to perceived proximity of goal-relevant targets, which helps perceivers make progress on goals.",
keywords = "implementation intentions, sports performance, visual perception",
author = "Chadly Stern and Shana Cole and Gollwitzer, {Peter M.} and Gabriele Oettingen and Emily Balcetis",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1177/0146167213479612",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
pages = "623--635",
journal = "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin",
issn = "0146-1672",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of Implementation Intentions on Anxiety, Perceived Proximity, and Motor Performance

AU - Stern, Chadly

AU - Cole, Shana

AU - Gollwitzer, Peter M.

AU - Oettingen, Gabriele

AU - Balcetis, Emily

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Anxiety leads to exaggerated perceptions of distance, which may impair performance on a physical task. In two studies, we tested one strategy to reduce anxiety and induce perceived proximity to increase performance. We predicted implementation intentions that reduce anxiety would increase perceived visual proximity to goal-relevant targets, which would indirectly improve performance. In two studies, we induced performance anxiety on a physical task. Participants who formed implementation intentions to reduce anxiety perceived goal-relevant targets (e.g., golf hole, dartboard) as physically closer and performed better than both participants without a strategy (Study 1) and participants with only a goal to regulate anxiety (Study 2). Furthermore, perceived proximity improved performance indirectly by increasing subjective task ease (Study 2). Results suggest that implementation intentions can reduce anxiety and lead to perceived proximity of goal-relevant targets, which helps perceivers make progress on goals.

AB - Anxiety leads to exaggerated perceptions of distance, which may impair performance on a physical task. In two studies, we tested one strategy to reduce anxiety and induce perceived proximity to increase performance. We predicted implementation intentions that reduce anxiety would increase perceived visual proximity to goal-relevant targets, which would indirectly improve performance. In two studies, we induced performance anxiety on a physical task. Participants who formed implementation intentions to reduce anxiety perceived goal-relevant targets (e.g., golf hole, dartboard) as physically closer and performed better than both participants without a strategy (Study 1) and participants with only a goal to regulate anxiety (Study 2). Furthermore, perceived proximity improved performance indirectly by increasing subjective task ease (Study 2). Results suggest that implementation intentions can reduce anxiety and lead to perceived proximity of goal-relevant targets, which helps perceivers make progress on goals.

KW - implementation intentions

KW - sports performance

KW - visual perception

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876437400&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876437400&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0146167213479612

DO - 10.1177/0146167213479612

M3 - Article

C2 - 23436769

AN - SCOPUS:84876437400

VL - 39

SP - 623

EP - 635

JO - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

JF - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

SN - 0146-1672

IS - 5

ER -