Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift

Peter J. Brown, Luc Dessart, Stephen T. Holland, Stefan Immler, Wayne Landsman, Stéphane Blondin, Alexander J. Blustin, Alice Breeveld, Gulab C. Dewangan, Neil Gehrels, Robert B. Hutchins, Robert P. Kirshner, Keith O. Mason, Paolo A. Mazzali, Peter Milne, Maryam Modjaz, Peter W A Roming

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We report early photospheric-phase observations of the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2005cs obtained by the Swift ultraviolet-optical and X-ray telescopes. Observations started within 2 days of discovery and continued on a regular basis for 3 weeks. During this time the V-band magnitude remained essentially constant, while the UV was initially bright, but steadily faded until below the brightness of an underlying UV-bright H II region. This UV decay is similar to SNe II observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer. UV grism spectra show the P Cygni absorption of Mg II 2798 Å, indicating a photospheric origin of the UV flux. Based on non-LTE model atmosphere calculations with the CMFGEN code, we associate the rapid evolution of the UV flux with the cooling of the ejecta, the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) shifting from ∼700 Å on June 30 to ∼1200 Å on July 5. Furthermore, the corresponding recombination of the ejecta, e.g., the transition from Fe III to Fe II, induces a considerable strengthening of metal line-blanketing at and above the photosphere, blocking more and more effectively this fading UV flux. SN 2005cs was not detected in the X-ray band, and the upper limit to the X-ray luminosity yields a limit to the mass-loss rate of the progenitor of Ṁ ≲ 1 × 1 × 10-5 yr-1 (vw/10 km s-1). Overall, Swift represents a unique opportunity to capture the early and fast evolution of Type II SNe in the UV, providing additional constraints on the reddening, the SED shortward of 4000 Å, and the ionization state and temperature of the photon-decoupling regions.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1488-1495
    Number of pages8
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume659
    Issue number2 I
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 20 2007

    Fingerprint

    supernovae
    ejecta
    spectral energy distribution
    IUE
    x rays
    H II regions
    fading
    photosphere
    extremely high frequencies
    decoupling
    recombination
    energy
    brightness
    ionization
    luminosity
    telescopes
    cooling
    atmospheres
    atmosphere
    metal

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: individual (M51)
    • Ultraviolet: general
    • X-rays: general

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Brown, P. J., Dessart, L., Holland, S. T., Immler, S., Landsman, W., Blondin, S., ... Roming, P. W. A. (2007). Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift. Astrophysical Journal, 659(2 I), 1488-1495. https://doi.org/10.1086/511968

    Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift. / Brown, Peter J.; Dessart, Luc; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Landsman, Wayne; Blondin, Stéphane; Blustin, Alexander J.; Breeveld, Alice; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Gehrels, Neil; Hutchins, Robert B.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mason, Keith O.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Milne, Peter; Modjaz, Maryam; Roming, Peter W A.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 659, No. 2 I, 20.04.2007, p. 1488-1495.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Brown, PJ, Dessart, L, Holland, ST, Immler, S, Landsman, W, Blondin, S, Blustin, AJ, Breeveld, A, Dewangan, GC, Gehrels, N, Hutchins, RB, Kirshner, RP, Mason, KO, Mazzali, PA, Milne, P, Modjaz, M & Roming, PWA 2007, 'Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 659, no. 2 I, pp. 1488-1495. https://doi.org/10.1086/511968
    Brown PJ, Dessart L, Holland ST, Immler S, Landsman W, Blondin S et al. Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift. Astrophysical Journal. 2007 Apr 20;659(2 I):1488-1495. https://doi.org/10.1086/511968
    Brown, Peter J. ; Dessart, Luc ; Holland, Stephen T. ; Immler, Stefan ; Landsman, Wayne ; Blondin, Stéphane ; Blustin, Alexander J. ; Breeveld, Alice ; Dewangan, Gulab C. ; Gehrels, Neil ; Hutchins, Robert B. ; Kirshner, Robert P. ; Mason, Keith O. ; Mazzali, Paolo A. ; Milne, Peter ; Modjaz, Maryam ; Roming, Peter W A. / Early ultraviolet, optical, and x-ray observations of the type IIP SN 2005cs in M51 with Swift. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2007 ; Vol. 659, No. 2 I. pp. 1488-1495.
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