Differences in Dietary Glycemic Load and Hormones in New York City Adults with No and Moderate/Severe Acne

Jennifer Burris, William Rietkerk, James M. Shikany, Kathleen Woolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may be implicated in acne pathogenesis. Objective This cross-sectional study examined differences between GI/GL and biological factors associated with acne among adults with and without moderate/severe acne. Secondary objectives included examining differences between food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality of life among adults with and without moderate/severe acne. Design As part of a cross-sectional study, participants completed a 5-day food record; blood draw to measure biological factors associated with acne (ie, glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations); body composition assessment; and questionnaire to evaluate food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality of life. Food records were analyzed using Nutrition Data Services for Research. Participants Sixty-four participants (no acne, n=32; moderate/severe acne, n=32) from New York City, NY, were included in this study. Statistical analysis Independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney tests examined differences in anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, biological factors associated with acne, insulin resistance, and acne-specific quality of life between acne groups. A χ2 test for independence assessed differences in food-aggravated acne beliefs between acne groups. Results Participants with moderate/severe acne consumed greater total carbohydrate (P=0.003), available carbohydrate (P<0.001), percent energy from carbohydrate (P<0.001), and GL (P<0.001) compared to participants without acne. Participants with moderate/severe acne had greater insulin (P=0.002) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.009) concentrations, greater insulin resistance (P=0.001), and lower sex hormone–binding globulin (P=0.015) concentrations compared to participants without acne. Although there were no differences between groups, 61% of participants reported food-influenced acne. Participants with moderate/severe acne reported a lower quality of life compared to participants without acne (P<0.001). Conclusions The results from this cross-sectional study suggest a relationship between dietary carbohydrate, including GL, and acne. Future research is necessary to determine the effect of medical nutrition therapy on biological factors associated with acne and acne severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1375-1383
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume117
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2017

Keywords

  • Acne vulgaris
  • Diet
  • Glycemic index
  • Glycemic load
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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