Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness

The Family Life Project Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children’s academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen’s ds = 0.9–2.7; odds ratios = 9.8–23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen’s ds = 0.2–2.4; odds ratios = 3.9–5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-372
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Volume50
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Fingerprint

Executive Function
kindergarten
Odds Ratio
childhood
Vocabulary
Growth
Intelligence
Individuality
intelligence
vocabulary
Group
school
performance
evidence

Keywords

  • academic achievement
  • developmental disability
  • executive function
  • school readiness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • Health Professions(all)

Cite this

Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness. / The Family Life Project Investigators.

In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 50, No. 4, 01.07.2017, p. 359-372.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{31e66cd88d06419f81f65078b746a610,
title = "Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness",
abstract = "Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children’s academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9{\%} of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen’s ds = 0.9–2.7; odds ratios = 9.8–23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen’s ds = 0.2–2.4; odds ratios = 3.9–5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.",
keywords = "academic achievement, developmental disability, executive function, school readiness",
author = "{The Family Life Project Investigators} and Willoughby, {Michael T.} and Brooke Magnus and Lynne Vernon-Feagans and Clancy Blair and Martha Cox and Clancy Blair and Peg Burchinal and Linda Burton and Keith Crnic and Ann Crouter and Patricia Garrett-Peters and Mark Greenberg and Stephanie Lanza and Roger Mills-Koonce and Debra Skinner and Emily Werner and Michael Willoughby",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0022219415619754",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "50",
pages = "359--372",
journal = "Journal of Learning Disabilities",
issn = "0022-2194",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness

AU - The Family Life Project Investigators

AU - Willoughby, Michael T.

AU - Magnus, Brooke

AU - Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

AU - Blair, Clancy

AU - Cox, Martha

AU - Blair, Clancy

AU - Burchinal, Peg

AU - Burton, Linda

AU - Crnic, Keith

AU - Crouter, Ann

AU - Garrett-Peters, Patricia

AU - Greenberg, Mark

AU - Lanza, Stephanie

AU - Mills-Koonce, Roger

AU - Skinner, Debra

AU - Werner, Emily

AU - Willoughby, Michael

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children’s academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen’s ds = 0.9–2.7; odds ratios = 9.8–23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen’s ds = 0.2–2.4; odds ratios = 3.9–5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.

AB - Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children’s academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project (N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen’s ds = 0.9–2.7; odds ratios = 9.8–23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen’s ds = 0.2–2.4; odds ratios = 3.9–5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.

KW - academic achievement

KW - developmental disability

KW - executive function

KW - school readiness

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85020526531&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85020526531&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0022219415619754

DO - 10.1177/0022219415619754

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 359

EP - 372

JO - Journal of Learning Disabilities

JF - Journal of Learning Disabilities

SN - 0022-2194

IS - 4

ER -