Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia

Carol G.T. Vance, Ruth L. Chimenti, Dana L. Dailey, Katherine Hadlandsmyth, M. Bridget Zimmerman, Katharine M. Geasland, Jonathan M. Williams, Ericka Merriwether, Li Alemo Munters, Barbara A. Rakel, Leslie J. Crofford, Kathleen A. Sluka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological intervention clinically used for pain relief. The importance of utilizing the adequate stimulation intensity is well documented; however, clinical methods to achieve the highest possible intensity are not established. Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine if exposure to the full range of clinical levels of stimulation, from sensory threshold to noxious, would result in higher final stimulation intensities. A secondary aim explored the association of pain, disease severity, and psychological variables with the ability to achieve higher final stimulation intensity. Methods: Women with fibromyalgia (N=143) were recruited for a dual-site randomized controlled trial – Fibromyalgia Activity Study with TENS (FAST). TENS electrodes and stimulation were applied to the lumbar area, and intensity was increased to sensory threshold (ST), then to “strong but comfortable” (SC1), then to “noxious” (N). This was followed by a reduction to the final stimulation intensity of “strong but comfortable” (SC2). We called this the Setting of Intensity of TENS (SIT) test. Results: There was a significant increase from SC1 (37.5 mA IQR: 35.6–39.0) to SC2 (39.2 mA IQR: 37.1–45.3) (p<0.0001) with a mean increase of 1.7 mA (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2). Linear regression analysis showed that those with the largest increase between SC1 and N had the largest increase in SC2–SC1. Further, those with older age and higher anxiety were able to achieve greater increases in intensity (SC2–SC1) using the SIT test. Conclusion: The SC2–SC1 increase was significantly associated with age and anxiety, with greater mean increases associated with older age and higher anxiety. Thus, although all patients may benefit from this protocol, older women and women with elevated anxiety receive the greatest benefit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2269-2278
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Pain Research
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

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Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Fibromyalgia
Anxiety
Sensory Thresholds
Pain
Aptitude
Linear Models
Electrodes
Randomized Controlled Trials
Regression Analysis
Psychology

Keywords

  • Dosage
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Pain
  • TENS
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Vance, C. G. T., Chimenti, R. L., Dailey, D. L., Hadlandsmyth, K., Zimmerman, M. B., Geasland, K. M., ... Sluka, K. A. (2018). Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia. Journal of Pain Research, 11, 2269-2278. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S168297

Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia. / Vance, Carol G.T.; Chimenti, Ruth L.; Dailey, Dana L.; Hadlandsmyth, Katherine; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Geasland, Katharine M.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Merriwether, Ericka; Munters, Li Alemo; Rakel, Barbara A.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

In: Journal of Pain Research, Vol. 11, 01.01.2018, p. 2269-2278.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vance, CGT, Chimenti, RL, Dailey, DL, Hadlandsmyth, K, Zimmerman, MB, Geasland, KM, Williams, JM, Merriwether, E, Munters, LA, Rakel, BA, Crofford, LJ & Sluka, KA 2018, 'Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia', Journal of Pain Research, vol. 11, pp. 2269-2278. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S168297
Vance, Carol G.T. ; Chimenti, Ruth L. ; Dailey, Dana L. ; Hadlandsmyth, Katherine ; Zimmerman, M. Bridget ; Geasland, Katharine M. ; Williams, Jonathan M. ; Merriwether, Ericka ; Munters, Li Alemo ; Rakel, Barbara A. ; Crofford, Leslie J. ; Sluka, Kathleen A. / Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia. In: Journal of Pain Research. 2018 ; Vol. 11. pp. 2269-2278.
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abstract = "Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological intervention clinically used for pain relief. The importance of utilizing the adequate stimulation intensity is well documented; however, clinical methods to achieve the highest possible intensity are not established. Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine if exposure to the full range of clinical levels of stimulation, from sensory threshold to noxious, would result in higher final stimulation intensities. A secondary aim explored the association of pain, disease severity, and psychological variables with the ability to achieve higher final stimulation intensity. Methods: Women with fibromyalgia (N=143) were recruited for a dual-site randomized controlled trial – Fibromyalgia Activity Study with TENS (FAST). TENS electrodes and stimulation were applied to the lumbar area, and intensity was increased to sensory threshold (ST), then to “strong but comfortable” (SC1), then to “noxious” (N). This was followed by a reduction to the final stimulation intensity of “strong but comfortable” (SC2). We called this the Setting of Intensity of TENS (SIT) test. Results: There was a significant increase from SC1 (37.5 mA IQR: 35.6–39.0) to SC2 (39.2 mA IQR: 37.1–45.3) (p<0.0001) with a mean increase of 1.7 mA (95{\%} CI: 1.5, 2.2). Linear regression analysis showed that those with the largest increase between SC1 and N had the largest increase in SC2–SC1. Further, those with older age and higher anxiety were able to achieve greater increases in intensity (SC2–SC1) using the SIT test. Conclusion: The SC2–SC1 increase was significantly associated with age and anxiety, with greater mean increases associated with older age and higher anxiety. Thus, although all patients may benefit from this protocol, older women and women with elevated anxiety receive the greatest benefit.",
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