Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector

S. Amerio, S. Amoruso, M. Antonello, P. Aprili, M. Armenante, Francesco Arneodo, A. Badertscher, B. Baiboussinov, M. Baldo Ceolin, G. Battistoni, B. Bekman, P. Benetti, E. Bernardini, M. Bischofberger, A. Borio di Tigliole, R. Brunetti, R. Bruzzese, A. Bueno, E. Calligarich, M. Campanelli & 117 others F. Carbonara, C. Carpanese, D. Cavalli, F. Cavanna, P. Cennini, S. Centro, A. Cesana, C. Chen, D. Chen, D. B. Chen, Y. Chen, R. Cid, D. B. Cline, K. Cieślik, A. G. Cocco, D. Corti, Z. Dai, C. de Vecchi, A. Dabrowska, A. di Cicco, R. Dolfini, A. Ereditato, M. Felcini, A. Ferella, A. Ferrari, F. Ferri, G. Fiorillo, S. Galli, D. Garcia Gamez, Y. Ge, D. Gibin, A. Gigli Berzolari, I. Gil-Botella, K. Graczyk, L. Grandi, A. Guglielmi, K. He, J. Holeczek, X. Huang, C. Juszczak, D. Kielczewska, J. Kisiel, T. Kozlowski, H. Kuna-Ciskal, M. Laffranchi, J. Lagoda, Z. Li, B. Lisowski, F. Lu, J. Ma, G. Mangano, G. Mannocchi, M. Markiewicz, A. Martinez de la Ossa, C. Matthey, F. Mauri, D. Mazza, A. J. Melgarejo, A. Menegolli, G. Meng, M. Messina, J. W. Mietelski, C. Montanari, S. Muraro, S. Navas-Concha, M. Nicoletto, J. Nowak, G. Nurzia, C. Osuna, S. Otwinowski, Q. Ouyang, O. Palamara, D. Pascoli, L. Periale, G. Piano Mortari, A. Piazzoli, P. Picchi, F. Pietropaolo, W. Pólchlopek, M. Prata, T. Rancati, A. Rappoldi, G. L. Raselli, J. Rico, E. Rondio, M. Rossella, A. Rubbia, C. Rubbia, P. Sala, R. Santorelli, D. Scannicchio, E. Segreto, Y. Seo, F. Sergiampietri, J. Sobczyk, N. Spinelli, J. Stepaniak, R. Sulej, M. Szeptycka, M. Szarska, M. Terrani, G. Trinchero, R. Velotta, S. Ventura, C. Vignoli, H. Wang, X. Wang, J. Woo, G. Xu, Z. Xu, X. Yang, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, S. Zhen, W. Zipper

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We have constructed and operated the ICARUS T600 liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC). The ICARUS T600 detector is the largest LAr TPC ever built, with a size of about 500 tons of fully imaging mass. The design and assembly of the detector relied on industrial support and represents the applications of concepts matured in laboratory tests to the kton scale. The ICARUS T600 was commissioned for a technical run that lasted about 3 months. During this period all the detector features were extensively tested with an exposure to cosmic-rays at surface with a resulting data collection of about 30000 events. The detector was developed as the first element of a modular design. Thanks to the concept of modularity, it will be possible to realize a detector with several ktons active mass, to act as an observatory for astroparticle and neutrino physics at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory and a second-generation nucleon decay experiment. In this paper a description of the ICARUS T600 is given, detailing its design specifications, assembly procedures and acceptance tests. Commissioning procedures and results of the technical run are also reported, as well as results from the off-line event reconstruction.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)329-410
    Number of pages82
    JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
    Volume527
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 21 2004

    Fingerprint

    Detectors
    detectors
    Argon
    assembly
    chambers
    projection
    argon
    modularity
    Acceptance tests
    Cosmic rays
    Liquids
    Observatories
    liquids
    acceptability
    specifications
    cosmic rays
    observatories
    neutrinos
    Physics
    Specifications

    Keywords

    • Calorimetry
    • Liquid Argon
    • Neutrino interaction
    • Nucleon decay
    • TPC

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Instrumentation

    Cite this

    Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector. / Amerio, S.; Amoruso, S.; Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Armenante, M.; Arneodo, Francesco; Badertscher, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bekman, B.; Benetti, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bischofberger, M.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Bruzzese, R.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carbonara, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, D.; Chen, D. B.; Chen, Y.; Cid, R.; Cline, D. B.; Cieślik, K.; Cocco, A. G.; Corti, D.; Dai, Z.; de Vecchi, C.; Dabrowska, A.; di Cicco, A.; Dolfini, R.; Ereditato, A.; Felcini, M.; Ferella, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferri, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galli, S.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Ge, Y.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Graczyk, K.; Grandi, L.; Guglielmi, A.; He, K.; Holeczek, J.; Huang, X.; Juszczak, C.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Kuna-Ciskal, H.; Laffranchi, M.; Lagoda, J.; Li, Z.; Lisowski, B.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mangano, G.; Mannocchi, G.; Markiewicz, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Mazza, D.; Melgarejo, A. J.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Messina, M.; Mietelski, J. W.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Navas-Concha, S.; Nicoletto, M.; Nowak, J.; Nurzia, G.; Osuna, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Ouyang, Q.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Periale, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Pólchlopek, W.; Prata, M.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rico, J.; Rondio, E.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Santorelli, R.; Scannicchio, D.; Segreto, E.; Seo, Y.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Spinelli, N.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szeptycka, M.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Trinchero, G.; Velotta, R.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhen, S.; Zipper, W.

    In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 527, No. 3, 21.07.2004, p. 329-410.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Amerio, S, Amoruso, S, Antonello, M, Aprili, P, Armenante, M, Arneodo, F, Badertscher, A, Baiboussinov, B, Baldo Ceolin, M, Battistoni, G, Bekman, B, Benetti, P, Bernardini, E, Bischofberger, M, Borio di Tigliole, A, Brunetti, R, Bruzzese, R, Bueno, A, Calligarich, E, Campanelli, M, Carbonara, F, Carpanese, C, Cavalli, D, Cavanna, F, Cennini, P, Centro, S, Cesana, A, Chen, C, Chen, D, Chen, DB, Chen, Y, Cid, R, Cline, DB, Cieślik, K, Cocco, AG, Corti, D, Dai, Z, de Vecchi, C, Dabrowska, A, di Cicco, A, Dolfini, R, Ereditato, A, Felcini, M, Ferella, A, Ferrari, A, Ferri, F, Fiorillo, G, Galli, S, Garcia Gamez, D, Ge, Y, Gibin, D, Gigli Berzolari, A, Gil-Botella, I, Graczyk, K, Grandi, L, Guglielmi, A, He, K, Holeczek, J, Huang, X, Juszczak, C, Kielczewska, D, Kisiel, J, Kozlowski, T, Kuna-Ciskal, H, Laffranchi, M, Lagoda, J, Li, Z, Lisowski, B, Lu, F, Ma, J, Mangano, G, Mannocchi, G, Markiewicz, M, Martinez de la Ossa, A, Matthey, C, Mauri, F, Mazza, D, Melgarejo, AJ, Menegolli, A, Meng, G, Messina, M, Mietelski, JW, Montanari, C, Muraro, S, Navas-Concha, S, Nicoletto, M, Nowak, J, Nurzia, G, Osuna, C, Otwinowski, S, Ouyang, Q, Palamara, O, Pascoli, D, Periale, L, Piano Mortari, G, Piazzoli, A, Picchi, P, Pietropaolo, F, Pólchlopek, W, Prata, M, Rancati, T, Rappoldi, A, Raselli, GL, Rico, J, Rondio, E, Rossella, M, Rubbia, A, Rubbia, C, Sala, P, Santorelli, R, Scannicchio, D, Segreto, E, Seo, Y, Sergiampietri, F, Sobczyk, J, Spinelli, N, Stepaniak, J, Sulej, R, Szeptycka, M, Szarska, M, Terrani, M, Trinchero, G, Velotta, R, Ventura, S, Vignoli, C, Wang, H, Wang, X, Woo, J, Xu, G, Xu, Z, Yang, X, Zalewska, A, Zalipska, J, Zhang, C, Zhang, Q, Zhen, S & Zipper, W 2004, 'Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 527, no. 3, pp. 329-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.02.044
    Amerio, S. ; Amoruso, S. ; Antonello, M. ; Aprili, P. ; Armenante, M. ; Arneodo, Francesco ; Badertscher, A. ; Baiboussinov, B. ; Baldo Ceolin, M. ; Battistoni, G. ; Bekman, B. ; Benetti, P. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bischofberger, M. ; Borio di Tigliole, A. ; Brunetti, R. ; Bruzzese, R. ; Bueno, A. ; Calligarich, E. ; Campanelli, M. ; Carbonara, F. ; Carpanese, C. ; Cavalli, D. ; Cavanna, F. ; Cennini, P. ; Centro, S. ; Cesana, A. ; Chen, C. ; Chen, D. ; Chen, D. B. ; Chen, Y. ; Cid, R. ; Cline, D. B. ; Cieślik, K. ; Cocco, A. G. ; Corti, D. ; Dai, Z. ; de Vecchi, C. ; Dabrowska, A. ; di Cicco, A. ; Dolfini, R. ; Ereditato, A. ; Felcini, M. ; Ferella, A. ; Ferrari, A. ; Ferri, F. ; Fiorillo, G. ; Galli, S. ; Garcia Gamez, D. ; Ge, Y. ; Gibin, D. ; Gigli Berzolari, A. ; Gil-Botella, I. ; Graczyk, K. ; Grandi, L. ; Guglielmi, A. ; He, K. ; Holeczek, J. ; Huang, X. ; Juszczak, C. ; Kielczewska, D. ; Kisiel, J. ; Kozlowski, T. ; Kuna-Ciskal, H. ; Laffranchi, M. ; Lagoda, J. ; Li, Z. ; Lisowski, B. ; Lu, F. ; Ma, J. ; Mangano, G. ; Mannocchi, G. ; Markiewicz, M. ; Martinez de la Ossa, A. ; Matthey, C. ; Mauri, F. ; Mazza, D. ; Melgarejo, A. J. ; Menegolli, A. ; Meng, G. ; Messina, M. ; Mietelski, J. W. ; Montanari, C. ; Muraro, S. ; Navas-Concha, S. ; Nicoletto, M. ; Nowak, J. ; Nurzia, G. ; Osuna, C. ; Otwinowski, S. ; Ouyang, Q. ; Palamara, O. ; Pascoli, D. ; Periale, L. ; Piano Mortari, G. ; Piazzoli, A. ; Picchi, P. ; Pietropaolo, F. ; Pólchlopek, W. ; Prata, M. ; Rancati, T. ; Rappoldi, A. ; Raselli, G. L. ; Rico, J. ; Rondio, E. ; Rossella, M. ; Rubbia, A. ; Rubbia, C. ; Sala, P. ; Santorelli, R. ; Scannicchio, D. ; Segreto, E. ; Seo, Y. ; Sergiampietri, F. ; Sobczyk, J. ; Spinelli, N. ; Stepaniak, J. ; Sulej, R. ; Szeptycka, M. ; Szarska, M. ; Terrani, M. ; Trinchero, G. ; Velotta, R. ; Ventura, S. ; Vignoli, C. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Woo, J. ; Xu, G. ; Xu, Z. ; Yang, X. ; Zalewska, A. ; Zalipska, J. ; Zhang, C. ; Zhang, Q. ; Zhen, S. ; Zipper, W. / Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2004 ; Vol. 527, No. 3. pp. 329-410.
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    title = "Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector",
    abstract = "We have constructed and operated the ICARUS T600 liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC). The ICARUS T600 detector is the largest LAr TPC ever built, with a size of about 500 tons of fully imaging mass. The design and assembly of the detector relied on industrial support and represents the applications of concepts matured in laboratory tests to the kton scale. The ICARUS T600 was commissioned for a technical run that lasted about 3 months. During this period all the detector features were extensively tested with an exposure to cosmic-rays at surface with a resulting data collection of about 30000 events. The detector was developed as the first element of a modular design. Thanks to the concept of modularity, it will be possible to realize a detector with several ktons active mass, to act as an observatory for astroparticle and neutrino physics at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory and a second-generation nucleon decay experiment. In this paper a description of the ICARUS T600 is given, detailing its design specifications, assembly procedures and acceptance tests. Commissioning procedures and results of the technical run are also reported, as well as results from the off-line event reconstruction.",
    keywords = "Calorimetry, Liquid Argon, Neutrino interaction, Nucleon decay, TPC",
    author = "S. Amerio and S. Amoruso and M. Antonello and P. Aprili and M. Armenante and Francesco Arneodo and A. Badertscher and B. Baiboussinov and {Baldo Ceolin}, M. and G. Battistoni and B. Bekman and P. Benetti and E. Bernardini and M. Bischofberger and {Borio di Tigliole}, A. and R. Brunetti and R. Bruzzese and A. Bueno and E. Calligarich and M. Campanelli and F. Carbonara and C. Carpanese and D. Cavalli and F. Cavanna and P. Cennini and S. Centro and A. Cesana and C. Chen and D. Chen and Chen, {D. B.} and Y. Chen and R. Cid and Cline, {D. B.} and K. Cieślik and Cocco, {A. G.} and D. Corti and Z. Dai and {de Vecchi}, C. and A. Dabrowska and {di Cicco}, A. and R. Dolfini and A. Ereditato and M. Felcini and A. Ferella and A. Ferrari and F. Ferri and G. Fiorillo and S. Galli and {Garcia Gamez}, D. and Y. Ge and D. Gibin and {Gigli Berzolari}, A. and I. Gil-Botella and K. Graczyk and L. Grandi and A. Guglielmi and K. He and J. Holeczek and X. Huang and C. Juszczak and D. Kielczewska and J. Kisiel and T. Kozlowski and H. Kuna-Ciskal and M. Laffranchi and J. Lagoda and Z. Li and B. Lisowski and F. Lu and J. Ma and G. Mangano and G. Mannocchi and M. Markiewicz and {Martinez de la Ossa}, A. and C. Matthey and F. Mauri and D. Mazza and Melgarejo, {A. J.} and A. Menegolli and G. Meng and M. Messina and Mietelski, {J. W.} and C. Montanari and S. Muraro and S. Navas-Concha and M. Nicoletto and J. Nowak and G. Nurzia and C. Osuna and S. Otwinowski and Q. Ouyang and O. Palamara and D. Pascoli and L. Periale and {Piano Mortari}, G. and A. Piazzoli and P. Picchi and F. Pietropaolo and W. P{\'o}lchlopek and M. Prata and T. Rancati and A. Rappoldi and Raselli, {G. L.} and J. Rico and E. Rondio and M. Rossella and A. Rubbia and C. Rubbia and P. Sala and R. Santorelli and D. Scannicchio and E. Segreto and Y. Seo and F. Sergiampietri and J. Sobczyk and N. Spinelli and J. Stepaniak and R. Sulej and M. Szeptycka and M. Szarska and M. Terrani and G. Trinchero and R. Velotta and S. Ventura and C. Vignoli and H. Wang and X. Wang and J. Woo and G. Xu and Z. Xu and X. Yang and A. Zalewska and J. Zalipska and C. Zhang and Q. Zhang and S. Zhen and W. Zipper",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Design, construction and tests of the ICARUS T600 detector

    AU - Amerio, S.

    AU - Amoruso, S.

    AU - Antonello, M.

    AU - Aprili, P.

    AU - Armenante, M.

    AU - Arneodo, Francesco

    AU - Badertscher, A.

    AU - Baiboussinov, B.

    AU - Baldo Ceolin, M.

    AU - Battistoni, G.

    AU - Bekman, B.

    AU - Benetti, P.

    AU - Bernardini, E.

    AU - Bischofberger, M.

    AU - Borio di Tigliole, A.

    AU - Brunetti, R.

    AU - Bruzzese, R.

    AU - Bueno, A.

    AU - Calligarich, E.

    AU - Campanelli, M.

    AU - Carbonara, F.

    AU - Carpanese, C.

    AU - Cavalli, D.

    AU - Cavanna, F.

    AU - Cennini, P.

    AU - Centro, S.

    AU - Cesana, A.

    AU - Chen, C.

    AU - Chen, D.

    AU - Chen, D. B.

    AU - Chen, Y.

    AU - Cid, R.

    AU - Cline, D. B.

    AU - Cieślik, K.

    AU - Cocco, A. G.

    AU - Corti, D.

    AU - Dai, Z.

    AU - de Vecchi, C.

    AU - Dabrowska, A.

    AU - di Cicco, A.

    AU - Dolfini, R.

    AU - Ereditato, A.

    AU - Felcini, M.

    AU - Ferella, A.

    AU - Ferrari, A.

    AU - Ferri, F.

    AU - Fiorillo, G.

    AU - Galli, S.

    AU - Garcia Gamez, D.

    AU - Ge, Y.

    AU - Gibin, D.

    AU - Gigli Berzolari, A.

    AU - Gil-Botella, I.

    AU - Graczyk, K.

    AU - Grandi, L.

    AU - Guglielmi, A.

    AU - He, K.

    AU - Holeczek, J.

    AU - Huang, X.

    AU - Juszczak, C.

    AU - Kielczewska, D.

    AU - Kisiel, J.

    AU - Kozlowski, T.

    AU - Kuna-Ciskal, H.

    AU - Laffranchi, M.

    AU - Lagoda, J.

    AU - Li, Z.

    AU - Lisowski, B.

    AU - Lu, F.

    AU - Ma, J.

    AU - Mangano, G.

    AU - Mannocchi, G.

    AU - Markiewicz, M.

    AU - Martinez de la Ossa, A.

    AU - Matthey, C.

    AU - Mauri, F.

    AU - Mazza, D.

    AU - Melgarejo, A. J.

    AU - Menegolli, A.

    AU - Meng, G.

    AU - Messina, M.

    AU - Mietelski, J. W.

    AU - Montanari, C.

    AU - Muraro, S.

    AU - Navas-Concha, S.

    AU - Nicoletto, M.

    AU - Nowak, J.

    AU - Nurzia, G.

    AU - Osuna, C.

    AU - Otwinowski, S.

    AU - Ouyang, Q.

    AU - Palamara, O.

    AU - Pascoli, D.

    AU - Periale, L.

    AU - Piano Mortari, G.

    AU - Piazzoli, A.

    AU - Picchi, P.

    AU - Pietropaolo, F.

    AU - Pólchlopek, W.

    AU - Prata, M.

    AU - Rancati, T.

    AU - Rappoldi, A.

    AU - Raselli, G. L.

    AU - Rico, J.

    AU - Rondio, E.

    AU - Rossella, M.

    AU - Rubbia, A.

    AU - Rubbia, C.

    AU - Sala, P.

    AU - Santorelli, R.

    AU - Scannicchio, D.

    AU - Segreto, E.

    AU - Seo, Y.

    AU - Sergiampietri, F.

    AU - Sobczyk, J.

    AU - Spinelli, N.

    AU - Stepaniak, J.

    AU - Sulej, R.

    AU - Szeptycka, M.

    AU - Szarska, M.

    AU - Terrani, M.

    AU - Trinchero, G.

    AU - Velotta, R.

    AU - Ventura, S.

    AU - Vignoli, C.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Woo, J.

    AU - Xu, G.

    AU - Xu, Z.

    AU - Yang, X.

    AU - Zalewska, A.

    AU - Zalipska, J.

    AU - Zhang, C.

    AU - Zhang, Q.

    AU - Zhen, S.

    AU - Zipper, W.

    PY - 2004/7/21

    Y1 - 2004/7/21

    N2 - We have constructed and operated the ICARUS T600 liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC). The ICARUS T600 detector is the largest LAr TPC ever built, with a size of about 500 tons of fully imaging mass. The design and assembly of the detector relied on industrial support and represents the applications of concepts matured in laboratory tests to the kton scale. The ICARUS T600 was commissioned for a technical run that lasted about 3 months. During this period all the detector features were extensively tested with an exposure to cosmic-rays at surface with a resulting data collection of about 30000 events. The detector was developed as the first element of a modular design. Thanks to the concept of modularity, it will be possible to realize a detector with several ktons active mass, to act as an observatory for astroparticle and neutrino physics at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory and a second-generation nucleon decay experiment. In this paper a description of the ICARUS T600 is given, detailing its design specifications, assembly procedures and acceptance tests. Commissioning procedures and results of the technical run are also reported, as well as results from the off-line event reconstruction.

    AB - We have constructed and operated the ICARUS T600 liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC). The ICARUS T600 detector is the largest LAr TPC ever built, with a size of about 500 tons of fully imaging mass. The design and assembly of the detector relied on industrial support and represents the applications of concepts matured in laboratory tests to the kton scale. The ICARUS T600 was commissioned for a technical run that lasted about 3 months. During this period all the detector features were extensively tested with an exposure to cosmic-rays at surface with a resulting data collection of about 30000 events. The detector was developed as the first element of a modular design. Thanks to the concept of modularity, it will be possible to realize a detector with several ktons active mass, to act as an observatory for astroparticle and neutrino physics at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory and a second-generation nucleon decay experiment. In this paper a description of the ICARUS T600 is given, detailing its design specifications, assembly procedures and acceptance tests. Commissioning procedures and results of the technical run are also reported, as well as results from the off-line event reconstruction.

    KW - Calorimetry

    KW - Liquid Argon

    KW - Neutrino interaction

    KW - Nucleon decay

    KW - TPC

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    U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2004.02.044

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    JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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