Crowding and personal space invasion on the train

Please don't make me sit in the middle

Gary W. Evans, Richard Wener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Mass transit users frequently experience crowding during their commutes. In this study of 139 urban passenger train commuters during rush hour, we found that the density of the train car was inconsequential for multiple indices (self-report, salivary cortisol, performance aftereffects) of stress whereas the immediate seating density proximate to the passenger significantly affected all three indices. When people had to sit close to other passengers, they experienced adverse reactions. These results are consistent with prior work indicating that individual spacing among persons that leads to personal space invasions is a more salient environmental condition than density per se. The findings also have implications for the design of mass transit vehicles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-94
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Environmental Psychology
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

Fingerprint

Personal Space
Crowding
Self Report
train
Hydrocortisone
automobile
spacing
environmental conditions
Train
index

Keywords

  • Commuting
  • Crowding
  • Personal space
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Crowding and personal space invasion on the train : Please don't make me sit in the middle. / Evans, Gary W.; Wener, Richard.

In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 03.2007, p. 90-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{da748a138a0d41f2a165fd78fae1792a,
title = "Crowding and personal space invasion on the train: Please don't make me sit in the middle",
abstract = "Mass transit users frequently experience crowding during their commutes. In this study of 139 urban passenger train commuters during rush hour, we found that the density of the train car was inconsequential for multiple indices (self-report, salivary cortisol, performance aftereffects) of stress whereas the immediate seating density proximate to the passenger significantly affected all three indices. When people had to sit close to other passengers, they experienced adverse reactions. These results are consistent with prior work indicating that individual spacing among persons that leads to personal space invasions is a more salient environmental condition than density per se. The findings also have implications for the design of mass transit vehicles.",
keywords = "Commuting, Crowding, Personal space, Stress",
author = "Evans, {Gary W.} and Richard Wener",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.10.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "90--94",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Psychology",
issn = "0272-4944",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Crowding and personal space invasion on the train

T2 - Please don't make me sit in the middle

AU - Evans, Gary W.

AU - Wener, Richard

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Mass transit users frequently experience crowding during their commutes. In this study of 139 urban passenger train commuters during rush hour, we found that the density of the train car was inconsequential for multiple indices (self-report, salivary cortisol, performance aftereffects) of stress whereas the immediate seating density proximate to the passenger significantly affected all three indices. When people had to sit close to other passengers, they experienced adverse reactions. These results are consistent with prior work indicating that individual spacing among persons that leads to personal space invasions is a more salient environmental condition than density per se. The findings also have implications for the design of mass transit vehicles.

AB - Mass transit users frequently experience crowding during their commutes. In this study of 139 urban passenger train commuters during rush hour, we found that the density of the train car was inconsequential for multiple indices (self-report, salivary cortisol, performance aftereffects) of stress whereas the immediate seating density proximate to the passenger significantly affected all three indices. When people had to sit close to other passengers, they experienced adverse reactions. These results are consistent with prior work indicating that individual spacing among persons that leads to personal space invasions is a more salient environmental condition than density per se. The findings also have implications for the design of mass transit vehicles.

KW - Commuting

KW - Crowding

KW - Personal space

KW - Stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947187322&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947187322&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.10.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.10.002

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 90

EP - 94

JO - Journal of Environmental Psychology

JF - Journal of Environmental Psychology

SN - 0272-4944

IS - 1

ER -