Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

J. Abraham, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, C. Aguirre, D. Allard, I. Allekotte, J. Allen, P. Allison, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, M. Ambrosio, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, A. Anzalone, C. Aramo, S. Argirò, K. Arisaka, E. Armengaud, Francesco Arneodo, F. Arqueros, T. AschH. Asorey, P. Assis, B. S. Atulugama, J. Aublin, M. Ave, G. Avila, T. Bäcker, D. Badagnani, A. F. Barbosa, D. Barnhill, S. L C Barroso, P. Bauleo, J. J. Beatty, T. Beau, B. R. Becker, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, S. BenZvi, C. Berat, T. Bergmann, P. Bernardini, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, P. Billoir, O. Blanch-Bigas, F. Blanco, P. Blasi, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, C. Bonifazi, R. Bonino, J. Brack, P. Brogueira, W. C. Brown, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, R. E. Burton, N. G. Busca, K. S. Caballero-Mora, B. Cai, D. V. Camin, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, W. Carvalho, A. Castellina, O. Catalano, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, J. Chauvin, A. Chiavassa, J. A. Chinellato, A. Chou, J. Chye, R. W. Clay, E. Colombo, R. Conceição, B. Connolly, F. Contreras, J. Coppens, A. Cordier, U. Cotti, S. Coutu, C. E. Covault, A. Creusot, A. Criss, J. Cronin, A. Curutiu, S. Dagoret-Campagne, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. de Almeida, C. De Donato, S. J. de Jong, G. De La Vega, W. J M de Mello, J. R T de Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, V. de Souza, L. del Peral, O. Deligny, A. Della Selva, C. Delle Fratte, H. Dembinski, C. Di Giulio, J. C. Diaz, P. N. Diep, C. Dobrigkeit, J. C. D'Olivo, P. N. Dong, D. Dornic, A. Dorofeev, J. C. dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, D. D'Urso, I. Dutan, M. A. DuVernois, R. Engel, L. Epele, M. Erdmann, C. O. Escobar, A. Etchegoyen, P. Facal San Luis, H. Falcke, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, F. Ferrer, S. Ferry, B. Fick, A. Filevich, A. Filipčič, I. Fleck, C. E. Fracchiolla, W. Fulgione, B. García, D. García Gámez, D. Garcia-Pinto, X. Garrido, H. Geenen, G. Gelmini, H. Gemmeke, P. L. Ghia, M. Giller, H. Glass, M. S. Gold, G. Golup, F. Gomez Albarracin, M. Gómez Berisso, R. Gómez Herrero, P. Gonçalves, M. Gonçalves do Amaral, D. Gonzalez, J. G. Gonzalez, M. González, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, P. Gouffon, V. Grassi, A. F. Grillo, C. Grunfeld, Y. Guardincerri, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, J. Gutiérrez, J. D. Hague, J. C. Hamilton, P. Hansen, D. Harari, S. Harmsma, J. L. Harton, A. Haungs, T. Hauschildt, M. D. Healy, T. Hebbeker, G. Hebrero, D. Heck, C. Hojvat, V. C. Holmes, P. Homola, J. Hörandel, A. Horneffer, M. Horvat, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, M. Hussain, M. Iarlori, A. Insolia, F. Ionita, A. Italiano, M. Kaducak, K. H. Kampert, T. Karova, B. Kégl, B. Keilhauer, E. Kemp, R. M. Kieckhafer, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, R. Knapik, J. Knapp, D. H. Koang, A. Krieger, O. Krömer, D. Kuempel, N. Kunka, A. Kusenko, G. La Rosa, C. Lachaud, B. L. Lago, D. Lebrun, P. LeBrun, J. Lee, M. A Leigui de Oliveira, A. Letessier-Selvon, M. Leuthold, I. Lhenry-Yvon, R. López, A. Lopez Agüera, J. Lozano Bahilo, R. Luna García, M. C. Maccarone, C. Macolino, S. Maldera, G. Mancarella, M. E. Manceñido, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A. G. Mariazzi, I. C. Maris, H. R Marquez Falcon, D. Martello, J. Martínez, O. Martínez Bravo, H. J. Mathes, J. Matthews, J. A J Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurizio, P. O. Mazur, T. McCauley, M. McEwen, R. R. McNeil, M. C. Medina, G. Medina-Tanco, A. Meli, D. Melo, E. Menichetti, A. Menschikov, Chr Meurer, R. Meyhandan, M. I. Micheletti, G. Miele, W. Miller, S. Mollerach, M. Monasor, D. Monnier Ragaigne, F. Montanet, B. Morales, C. Morello, J. C. Moreno, C. Morris, M. Mostafá, M. A. Muller, R. Mussa, G. Navarra, J. L. Navarro, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, C. Newman-Holmes, D. Newton, P. T. Nhung, N. Nierstenhoefer, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, L. Nožka, J. Oehlschläger, T. Ohnuki, A. Olinto, V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja, M. Ortiz, F. Ortolani, S. Ostapchenko, L. Otero, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, G. Parente, E. Parizot, S. Parlati, S. Pastor, M. Patel, T. Paul, V. Pavlidou, K. Payet, M. Pech, J. Pȩkala, R. Pelayo, I. M. Pepe, L. Perrone, S. Petrera, P. Petrinca, Y. Petrov, A. Pichel, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, M. Pimenta, T. Pinto, V. Pirronello, O. Pisanti, M. Platino, J. Pochon, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, E. J. Quel, J. Rautenberg, A. Redondo, S. Reucroft, B. Revenu, F. A S Rezende, J. Ridky, S. Riggi, M. Risse, C. Rivière, V. Rizi, M. Roberts, C. Robledo, G. Rodriguez, J. Rodriguez Martino, J. Rodriguez Rojo, I. Rodriguez-Cabo, M. D. Rodríguez-Frías, G. Ros, J. Rosado, M. Roth, B. Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, F. Sánchez, M. Santander, C. E. Santo, E. M. Santos, F. Sarazin, S. Sarkar, R. Sato, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, A. Schmidt, F. Schmidt, T. Schmidt, O. Scholten, P. Schovánek, F. Schüssler, S. J. Sciutto, M. Scuderi, A. Segreto, D. Semikoz, M. Settimo, R. C. Shellard, I. Sidelnik, B. B. Siffert, G. Sigl, N. Smetniansky De Grande, A. Smiałkowski, R. Šmída, A. G K Smith, B. E. Smith, G. R. Snow, P. Sokolsky, P. Sommers, J. Sorokin, H. Spinka, R. Squartini, E. Strazzeri, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, M. S. Sutherland, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, J. Takahashi, A. Tamashiro, A. Tamburro, O. Taşcǎu, R. Tcaciuc, N. T. Thao, D. Thomas, R. Ticona, J. Tiffenberg, C. Timmermans, W. Tkaczyk, C. J Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, I. Torres, P. Travnicek, A. Tripathi, G. Tristram, D. Tscherniakhovski, M. Tueros, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, J. F Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, A. M. van den Berg, V. van Elewyck, R. A. Vázquez, D. Veberič, A. Veiga, A. Velarde, T. Venters, V. Verzi, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, S. Vorobiov, L. Voyvodic, H. Wahlberg, O. Wainberg, D. Warner, A. A. Watson, S. Westerhoff, G. Wieczorek, L. Wiencke, B. Wilczyńska, H. Wilczyński, C. Wileman, M. G. Winnick, H. Wu, B. Wundheiler, T. Yamamoto, P. Younk, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, A. Zech, A. Zepeda, M. Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ∼6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ∼75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-204
Number of pages17
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

active galactic nuclei
cosmic rays
observatories
energy
anisotropy
background radiation
arrivals
confidence
galaxies
magnetic fields
interactions

Keywords

  • AGN
  • Anisotropy
  • Auger
  • EGMF
  • Extra-galactic
  • GMF
  • GZK
  • High energy cosmic rays
  • Observatory
  • UHECR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Abraham, J., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Aguirre, C., Allard, D., Allekotte, I., ... Ziolkowski, M. (2008). Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei. Astroparticle Physics, 29(3), 188-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.01.002

Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei. / Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, Francesco; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L C; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J M; de Mello Neto, J. R T; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Selva, A. Della; Fratte, C. Delle; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gómez; Herrero, R. Gómez; Gonçalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Agüera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A J; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A S; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G K; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcǎu, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 29, No. 3, 04.2008, p. 188-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abraham, J, Abreu, P, Aglietta, M, Aguirre, C, Allard, D, Allekotte, I, Allen, J, Allison, P, Alvarez-Muñiz, J, Ambrosio, M, Anchordoqui, L, Andringa, S, Anzalone, A, Aramo, C, Argirò, S, Arisaka, K, Armengaud, E, Arneodo, F, Arqueros, F, Asch, T, Asorey, H, Assis, P, Atulugama, BS, Aublin, J, Ave, M, Avila, G, Bäcker, T, Badagnani, D, Barbosa, AF, Barnhill, D, Barroso, SLC, Bauleo, P, Beatty, JJ, Beau, T, Becker, BR, Becker, KH, Bellido, JA, BenZvi, S, Berat, C, Bergmann, T, Bernardini, P, Bertou, X, Biermann, PL, Billoir, P, Blanch-Bigas, O, Blanco, F, Blasi, P, Bleve, C, Blümer, H, Boháčová, M, Bonifazi, C, Bonino, R, Brack, J, Brogueira, P, Brown, WC, Buchholz, P, Bueno, A, Burton, RE, Busca, NG, Caballero-Mora, KS, Cai, B, Camin, DV, Caramete, L, Caruso, R, Carvalho, W, Castellina, A, Catalano, O, Cataldi, G, Cazon, L, Cester, R, Chauvin, J, Chiavassa, A, Chinellato, JA, Chou, A, Chye, J, Clay, RW, Colombo, E, Conceição, R, Connolly, B, Contreras, F, Coppens, J, Cordier, A, Cotti, U, Coutu, S, Covault, CE, Creusot, A, Criss, A, Cronin, J, Curutiu, A, Dagoret-Campagne, S, Daumiller, K, Dawson, BR, de Almeida, RM, De Donato, C, de Jong, SJ, De La Vega, G, de Mello, WJM, de Mello Neto, JRT, De Mitri, I, de Souza, V, del Peral, L, Deligny, O, Selva, AD, Fratte, CD, Dembinski, H, Di Giulio, C, Diaz, JC, Diep, PN, Dobrigkeit, C, D'Olivo, JC, Dong, PN, Dornic, D, Dorofeev, A, dos Anjos, JC, Dova, MT, D'Urso, D, Dutan, I, DuVernois, MA, Engel, R, Epele, L, Erdmann, M, Escobar, CO, Etchegoyen, A, San Luis, PF, Falcke, H, Farrar, G, Fauth, AC, Fazzini, N, Ferrer, F, Ferry, S, Fick, B, Filevich, A, Filipčič, A, Fleck, I, Fracchiolla, CE, Fulgione, W, García, B, García Gámez, D, Garcia-Pinto, D, Garrido, X, Geenen, H, Gelmini, G, Gemmeke, H, Ghia, PL, Giller, M, Glass, H, Gold, MS, Golup, G, Albarracin, FG, Berisso, MG, Herrero, RG, Gonçalves, P, do Amaral, MG, Gonzalez, D, Gonzalez, JG, González, M, Góra, D, Gorgi, A, Gouffon, P, Grassi, V, Grillo, AF, Grunfeld, C, Guardincerri, Y, Guarino, F, Guedes, GP, Gutiérrez, J, Hague, JD, Hamilton, JC, Hansen, P, Harari, D, Harmsma, S, Harton, JL, Haungs, A, Hauschildt, T, Healy, MD, Hebbeker, T, Hebrero, G, Heck, D, Hojvat, C, Holmes, VC, Homola, P, Hörandel, J, Horneffer, A, Horvat, M, Hrabovský, M, Huege, T, Hussain, M, Iarlori, M, Insolia, A, Ionita, F, Italiano, A, Kaducak, M, Kampert, KH, Karova, T, Kégl, B, Keilhauer, B, Kemp, E, Kieckhafer, RM, Klages, HO, Kleifges, M, Kleinfeller, J, Knapik, R, Knapp, J, Koang, DH, Krieger, A, Krömer, O, Kuempel, D, Kunka, N, Kusenko, A, La Rosa, G, Lachaud, C, Lago, BL, Lebrun, D, LeBrun, P, Lee, J, de Oliveira, MAL, Letessier-Selvon, A, Leuthold, M, Lhenry-Yvon, I, López, R, Agüera, AL, Bahilo, JL, García, RL, Maccarone, MC, Macolino, C, Maldera, S, Mancarella, G, Manceñido, ME, Mandat, D, Mantsch, P, Mariazzi, AG, Maris, IC, Falcon, HRM, Martello, D, Martínez, J, Bravo, OM, Mathes, HJ, Matthews, J, Matthews, JAJ, Matthiae, G, Maurizio, D, Mazur, PO, McCauley, T, McEwen, M, McNeil, RR, Medina, MC, Medina-Tanco, G, Meli, A, Melo, D, Menichetti, E, Menschikov, A, Meurer, C, Meyhandan, R, Micheletti, MI, Miele, G, Miller, W, Mollerach, S, Monasor, M, Ragaigne, DM, Montanet, F, Morales, B, Morello, C, Moreno, JC, Morris, C, Mostafá, M, Muller, MA, Mussa, R, Navarra, G, Navarro, JL, Navas, S, Necesal, P, Nellen, L, Newman-Holmes, C, Newton, D, Nhung, PT, Nierstenhoefer, N, Nitz, D, Nosek, D, Nožka, L, Oehlschläger, J, Ohnuki, T, Olinto, A, Olmos-Gilbaja, VM, Ortiz, M, Ortolani, F, Ostapchenko, S, Otero, L, Pacheco, N, Selmi-Dei, DP, Palatka, M, Pallotta, J, Parente, G, Parizot, E, Parlati, S, Pastor, S, Patel, M, Paul, T, Pavlidou, V, Payet, K, Pech, M, Pȩkala, J, Pelayo, R, Pepe, IM, Perrone, L, Petrera, S, Petrinca, P, Petrov, Y, Pichel, A, Piegaia, R, Pierog, T, Pimenta, M, Pinto, T, Pirronello, V, Pisanti, O, Platino, M, Pochon, J, Privitera, P, Prouza, M, Quel, EJ, Rautenberg, J, Redondo, A, Reucroft, S, Revenu, B, Rezende, FAS, Ridky, J, Riggi, S, Risse, M, Rivière, C, Rizi, V, Roberts, M, Robledo, C, Rodriguez, G, Martino, JR, Rojo, JR, Rodriguez-Cabo, I, Rodríguez-Frías, MD, Ros, G, Rosado, J, Roth, M, Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B, Roulet, E, Rovero, AC, Salamida, F, Salazar, H, Salina, G, Sánchez, F, Santander, M, Santo, CE, Santos, EM, Sarazin, F, Sarkar, S, Sato, R, Scherini, V, Schieler, H, Schmidt, A, Schmidt, F, Schmidt, T, Scholten, O, Schovánek, P, Schüssler, F, Sciutto, SJ, Scuderi, M, Segreto, A, Semikoz, D, Settimo, M, Shellard, RC, Sidelnik, I, Siffert, BB, Sigl, G, De Grande, NS, Smiałkowski, A, Šmída, R, Smith, AGK, Smith, BE, Snow, GR, Sokolsky, P, Sommers, P, Sorokin, J, Spinka, H, Squartini, R, Strazzeri, E, Stutz, A, Suarez, F, Suomijärvi, T, Supanitsky, AD, Sutherland, MS, Swain, J, Szadkowski, Z, Takahashi, J, Tamashiro, A, Tamburro, A, Taşcǎu, O, Tcaciuc, R, Thao, NT, Thomas, D, Ticona, R, Tiffenberg, J, Timmermans, C, Tkaczyk, W, Peixoto, CJT, Tomé, B, Tonachini, A, Torres, I, Travnicek, P, Tripathi, A, Tristram, G, Tscherniakhovski, D, Tueros, M, Ulrich, R, Unger, M, Urban, M, Galicia, JFV, Valiño, I, Valore, L, van den Berg, AM, van Elewyck, V, Vázquez, RA, Veberič, D, Veiga, A, Velarde, A, Venters, T, Verzi, V, Videla, M, Villaseñor, L, Vorobiov, S, Voyvodic, L, Wahlberg, H, Wainberg, O, Warner, D, Watson, AA, Westerhoff, S, Wieczorek, G, Wiencke, L, Wilczyńska, B, Wilczyński, H, Wileman, C, Winnick, MG, Wu, H, Wundheiler, B, Yamamoto, T, Younk, P, Zas, E, Zavrtanik, D, Zavrtanik, M, Zech, A, Zepeda, A & Ziolkowski, M 2008, 'Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 188-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.01.002
Abraham, J. ; Abreu, P. ; Aglietta, M. ; Aguirre, C. ; Allard, D. ; Allekotte, I. ; Allen, J. ; Allison, P. ; Alvarez-Muñiz, J. ; Ambrosio, M. ; Anchordoqui, L. ; Andringa, S. ; Anzalone, A. ; Aramo, C. ; Argirò, S. ; Arisaka, K. ; Armengaud, E. ; Arneodo, Francesco ; Arqueros, F. ; Asch, T. ; Asorey, H. ; Assis, P. ; Atulugama, B. S. ; Aublin, J. ; Ave, M. ; Avila, G. ; Bäcker, T. ; Badagnani, D. ; Barbosa, A. F. ; Barnhill, D. ; Barroso, S. L C ; Bauleo, P. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Beau, T. ; Becker, B. R. ; Becker, K. H. ; Bellido, J. A. ; BenZvi, S. ; Berat, C. ; Bergmann, T. ; Bernardini, P. ; Bertou, X. ; Biermann, P. L. ; Billoir, P. ; Blanch-Bigas, O. ; Blanco, F. ; Blasi, P. ; Bleve, C. ; Blümer, H. ; Boháčová, M. ; Bonifazi, C. ; Bonino, R. ; Brack, J. ; Brogueira, P. ; Brown, W. C. ; Buchholz, P. ; Bueno, A. ; Burton, R. E. ; Busca, N. G. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Cai, B. ; Camin, D. V. ; Caramete, L. ; Caruso, R. ; Carvalho, W. ; Castellina, A. ; Catalano, O. ; Cataldi, G. ; Cazon, L. ; Cester, R. ; Chauvin, J. ; Chiavassa, A. ; Chinellato, J. A. ; Chou, A. ; Chye, J. ; Clay, R. W. ; Colombo, E. ; Conceição, R. ; Connolly, B. ; Contreras, F. ; Coppens, J. ; Cordier, A. ; Cotti, U. ; Coutu, S. ; Covault, C. E. ; Creusot, A. ; Criss, A. ; Cronin, J. ; Curutiu, A. ; Dagoret-Campagne, S. ; Daumiller, K. ; Dawson, B. R. ; de Almeida, R. M. ; De Donato, C. ; de Jong, S. J. ; De La Vega, G. ; de Mello, W. J M ; de Mello Neto, J. R T ; De Mitri, I. ; de Souza, V. ; del Peral, L. ; Deligny, O. ; Selva, A. Della ; Fratte, C. Delle ; Dembinski, H. ; Di Giulio, C. ; Diaz, J. C. ; Diep, P. N. ; Dobrigkeit, C. ; D'Olivo, J. C. ; Dong, P. N. ; Dornic, D. ; Dorofeev, A. ; dos Anjos, J. C. ; Dova, M. T. ; D'Urso, D. ; Dutan, I. ; DuVernois, M. A. ; Engel, R. ; Epele, L. ; Erdmann, M. ; Escobar, C. O. ; Etchegoyen, A. ; San Luis, P. Facal ; Falcke, H. ; Farrar, G. ; Fauth, A. C. ; Fazzini, N. ; Ferrer, F. ; Ferry, S. ; Fick, B. ; Filevich, A. ; Filipčič, A. ; Fleck, I. ; Fracchiolla, C. E. ; Fulgione, W. ; García, B. ; García Gámez, D. ; Garcia-Pinto, D. ; Garrido, X. ; Geenen, H. ; Gelmini, G. ; Gemmeke, H. ; Ghia, P. L. ; Giller, M. ; Glass, H. ; Gold, M. S. ; Golup, G. ; Albarracin, F. Gomez ; Berisso, M. Gómez ; Herrero, R. Gómez ; Gonçalves, P. ; do Amaral, M. Gonçalves ; Gonzalez, D. ; Gonzalez, J. G. ; González, M. ; Góra, D. ; Gorgi, A. ; Gouffon, P. ; Grassi, V. ; Grillo, A. F. ; Grunfeld, C. ; Guardincerri, Y. ; Guarino, F. ; Guedes, G. P. ; Gutiérrez, J. ; Hague, J. D. ; Hamilton, J. C. ; Hansen, P. ; Harari, D. ; Harmsma, S. ; Harton, J. L. ; Haungs, A. ; Hauschildt, T. ; Healy, M. D. ; Hebbeker, T. ; Hebrero, G. ; Heck, D. ; Hojvat, C. ; Holmes, V. C. ; Homola, P. ; Hörandel, J. ; Horneffer, A. ; Horvat, M. ; Hrabovský, M. ; Huege, T. ; Hussain, M. ; Iarlori, M. ; Insolia, A. ; Ionita, F. ; Italiano, A. ; Kaducak, M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Karova, T. ; Kégl, B. ; Keilhauer, B. ; Kemp, E. ; Kieckhafer, R. M. ; Klages, H. O. ; Kleifges, M. ; Kleinfeller, J. ; Knapik, R. ; Knapp, J. ; Koang, D. H. ; Krieger, A. ; Krömer, O. ; Kuempel, D. ; Kunka, N. ; Kusenko, A. ; La Rosa, G. ; Lachaud, C. ; Lago, B. L. ; Lebrun, D. ; LeBrun, P. ; Lee, J. ; de Oliveira, M. A Leigui ; Letessier-Selvon, A. ; Leuthold, M. ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. ; López, R. ; Agüera, A. Lopez ; Bahilo, J. Lozano ; García, R. Luna ; Maccarone, M. C. ; Macolino, C. ; Maldera, S. ; Mancarella, G. ; Manceñido, M. E. ; Mandat, D. ; Mantsch, P. ; Mariazzi, A. G. ; Maris, I. C. ; Falcon, H. R Marquez ; Martello, D. ; Martínez, J. ; Bravo, O. Martínez ; Mathes, H. J. ; Matthews, J. ; Matthews, J. A J ; Matthiae, G. ; Maurizio, D. ; Mazur, P. O. ; McCauley, T. ; McEwen, M. ; McNeil, R. R. ; Medina, M. C. ; Medina-Tanco, G. ; Meli, A. ; Melo, D. ; Menichetti, E. ; Menschikov, A. ; Meurer, Chr ; Meyhandan, R. ; Micheletti, M. I. ; Miele, G. ; Miller, W. ; Mollerach, S. ; Monasor, M. ; Ragaigne, D. Monnier ; Montanet, F. ; Morales, B. ; Morello, C. ; Moreno, J. C. ; Morris, C. ; Mostafá, M. ; Muller, M. A. ; Mussa, R. ; Navarra, G. ; Navarro, J. L. ; Navas, S. ; Necesal, P. ; Nellen, L. ; Newman-Holmes, C. ; Newton, D. ; Nhung, P. T. ; Nierstenhoefer, N. ; Nitz, D. ; Nosek, D. ; Nožka, L. ; Oehlschläger, J. ; Ohnuki, T. ; Olinto, A. ; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M. ; Ortiz, M. ; Ortolani, F. ; Ostapchenko, S. ; Otero, L. ; Pacheco, N. ; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk ; Palatka, M. ; Pallotta, J. ; Parente, G. ; Parizot, E. ; Parlati, S. ; Pastor, S. ; Patel, M. ; Paul, T. ; Pavlidou, V. ; Payet, K. ; Pech, M. ; Pȩkala, J. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pepe, I. M. ; Perrone, L. ; Petrera, S. ; Petrinca, P. ; Petrov, Y. ; Pichel, A. ; Piegaia, R. ; Pierog, T. ; Pimenta, M. ; Pinto, T. ; Pirronello, V. ; Pisanti, O. ; Platino, M. ; Pochon, J. ; Privitera, P. ; Prouza, M. ; Quel, E. J. ; Rautenberg, J. ; Redondo, A. ; Reucroft, S. ; Revenu, B. ; Rezende, F. A S ; Ridky, J. ; Riggi, S. ; Risse, M. ; Rivière, C. ; Rizi, V. ; Roberts, M. ; Robledo, C. ; Rodriguez, G. ; Martino, J. Rodriguez ; Rojo, J. Rodriguez ; Rodriguez-Cabo, I. ; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. ; Ros, G. ; Rosado, J. ; Roth, M. ; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B. ; Roulet, E. ; Rovero, A. C. ; Salamida, F. ; Salazar, H. ; Salina, G. ; Sánchez, F. ; Santander, M. ; Santo, C. E. ; Santos, E. M. ; Sarazin, F. ; Sarkar, S. ; Sato, R. ; Scherini, V. ; Schieler, H. ; Schmidt, A. ; Schmidt, F. ; Schmidt, T. ; Scholten, O. ; Schovánek, P. ; Schüssler, F. ; Sciutto, S. J. ; Scuderi, M. ; Segreto, A. ; Semikoz, D. ; Settimo, M. ; Shellard, R. C. ; Sidelnik, I. ; Siffert, B. B. ; Sigl, G. ; De Grande, N. Smetniansky ; Smiałkowski, A. ; Šmída, R. ; Smith, A. G K ; Smith, B. E. ; Snow, G. R. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Sommers, P. ; Sorokin, J. ; Spinka, H. ; Squartini, R. ; Strazzeri, E. ; Stutz, A. ; Suarez, F. ; Suomijärvi, T. ; Supanitsky, A. D. ; Sutherland, M. S. ; Swain, J. ; Szadkowski, Z. ; Takahashi, J. ; Tamashiro, A. ; Tamburro, A. ; Taşcǎu, O. ; Tcaciuc, R. ; Thao, N. T. ; Thomas, D. ; Ticona, R. ; Tiffenberg, J. ; Timmermans, C. ; Tkaczyk, W. ; Peixoto, C. J Todero ; Tomé, B. ; Tonachini, A. ; Torres, I. ; Travnicek, P. ; Tripathi, A. ; Tristram, G. ; Tscherniakhovski, D. ; Tueros, M. ; Ulrich, R. ; Unger, M. ; Urban, M. ; Galicia, J. F Valdés ; Valiño, I. ; Valore, L. ; van den Berg, A. M. ; van Elewyck, V. ; Vázquez, R. A. ; Veberič, D. ; Veiga, A. ; Velarde, A. ; Venters, T. ; Verzi, V. ; Videla, M. ; Villaseñor, L. ; Vorobiov, S. ; Voyvodic, L. ; Wahlberg, H. ; Wainberg, O. ; Warner, D. ; Watson, A. A. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wieczorek, G. ; Wiencke, L. ; Wilczyńska, B. ; Wilczyński, H. ; Wileman, C. ; Winnick, M. G. ; Wu, H. ; Wundheiler, B. ; Yamamoto, T. ; Younk, P. ; Zas, E. ; Zavrtanik, D. ; Zavrtanik, M. ; Zech, A. ; Zepeda, A. ; Ziolkowski, M. / Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2008 ; Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 188-204.
@article{6de316151d08408497b07ba1e24c52ca,
title = "Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei",
abstract = "Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ∼6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ∼75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99{\%} through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.",
keywords = "AGN, Anisotropy, Auger, EGMF, Extra-galactic, GMF, GZK, High energy cosmic rays, Observatory, UHECR",
author = "J. Abraham and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and C. Aguirre and D. Allard and I. Allekotte and J. Allen and P. Allison and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and M. Ambrosio and L. Anchordoqui and S. Andringa and A. Anzalone and C. Aramo and S. Argir{\`o} and K. Arisaka and E. Armengaud and Francesco Arneodo and F. Arqueros and T. Asch and H. Asorey and P. Assis and Atulugama, {B. S.} and J. Aublin and M. Ave and G. Avila and T. B{\"a}cker and D. Badagnani and Barbosa, {A. F.} and D. Barnhill and Barroso, {S. L C} and P. Bauleo and Beatty, {J. J.} and T. Beau and Becker, {B. R.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and S. BenZvi and C. Berat and T. Bergmann and P. Bernardini and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and P. Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and F. Blanco and P. Blasi and C. Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and M. Boh{\'a}čov{\'a} and C. Bonifazi and R. Bonino and J. Brack and P. Brogueira and Brown, {W. C.} and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and Burton, {R. E.} and Busca, {N. G.} and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and B. Cai and Camin, {D. V.} and L. Caramete and R. Caruso and W. Carvalho and A. Castellina and O. Catalano and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon and R. Cester and J. Chauvin and A. Chiavassa and Chinellato, {J. A.} and A. Chou and J. Chye and Clay, {R. W.} and E. Colombo and R. Concei{\cc}{\~a}o and B. Connolly and F. Contreras and J. Coppens and A. Cordier and U. Cotti and S. Coutu and Covault, {C. E.} and A. Creusot and A. Criss and J. Cronin and A. Curutiu and S. Dagoret-Campagne and K. Daumiller and Dawson, {B. R.} and {de Almeida}, {R. M.} and {De Donato}, C. and {de Jong}, {S. J.} and {De La Vega}, G. and {de Mello}, {W. J M} and {de Mello Neto}, {J. R T} and {De Mitri}, I. and {de Souza}, V. and {del Peral}, L. and O. Deligny and Selva, {A. Della} and Fratte, {C. Delle} and H. Dembinski and {Di Giulio}, C. and Diaz, {J. C.} and Diep, {P. N.} and C. Dobrigkeit and D'Olivo, {J. C.} and Dong, {P. N.} and D. Dornic and A. Dorofeev and {dos Anjos}, {J. C.} and Dova, {M. T.} and D. D'Urso and I. Dutan and DuVernois, {M. A.} and R. Engel and L. Epele and M. Erdmann and Escobar, {C. O.} and A. Etchegoyen and {San Luis}, {P. Facal} and H. Falcke and G. Farrar and Fauth, {A. C.} and N. Fazzini and F. Ferrer and S. Ferry and B. Fick and A. Filevich and A. Filipčič and I. Fleck and Fracchiolla, {C. E.} and W. Fulgione and B. Garc{\'i}a and {Garc{\'i}a G{\'a}mez}, D. and D. Garcia-Pinto and X. Garrido and H. Geenen and G. Gelmini and H. Gemmeke and Ghia, {P. L.} and M. Giller and H. Glass and Gold, {M. S.} and G. Golup and Albarracin, {F. Gomez} and Berisso, {M. G{\'o}mez} and Herrero, {R. G{\'o}mez} and P. Gon{\cc}alves and {do Amaral}, {M. Gon{\cc}alves} and D. Gonzalez and Gonzalez, {J. G.} and M. Gonz{\'a}lez and D. G{\'o}ra and A. Gorgi and P. Gouffon and V. Grassi and Grillo, {A. F.} and C. Grunfeld and Y. Guardincerri and F. Guarino and Guedes, {G. P.} and J. Guti{\'e}rrez and Hague, {J. D.} and Hamilton, {J. C.} and P. Hansen and D. Harari and S. Harmsma and Harton, {J. L.} and A. Haungs and T. Hauschildt and Healy, {M. D.} and T. Hebbeker and G. Hebrero and D. Heck and C. Hojvat and Holmes, {V. C.} and P. Homola and J. H{\"o}randel and A. Horneffer and M. Horvat and M. Hrabovsk{\'y} and T. Huege and M. Hussain and M. Iarlori and A. Insolia and F. Ionita and A. Italiano and M. Kaducak and Kampert, {K. H.} and T. Karova and B. K{\'e}gl and B. Keilhauer and E. Kemp and Kieckhafer, {R. M.} and Klages, {H. O.} and M. Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and R. Knapik and J. Knapp and Koang, {D. H.} and A. Krieger and O. Kr{\"o}mer and D. Kuempel and N. Kunka and A. Kusenko and {La Rosa}, G. and C. Lachaud and Lago, {B. L.} and D. Lebrun and P. LeBrun and J. Lee and {de Oliveira}, {M. A Leigui} and A. Letessier-Selvon and M. Leuthold and I. Lhenry-Yvon and R. L{\'o}pez and Ag{\"u}era, {A. Lopez} and Bahilo, {J. Lozano} and Garc{\'i}a, {R. Luna} and Maccarone, {M. C.} and C. Macolino and S. Maldera and G. Mancarella and Mance{\~n}ido, {M. E.} and D. Mandat and P. Mantsch and Mariazzi, {A. G.} and Maris, {I. C.} and Falcon, {H. R Marquez} and D. Martello and J. Mart{\'i}nez and Bravo, {O. Mart{\'i}nez} and Mathes, {H. J.} and J. Matthews and Matthews, {J. A J} and G. Matthiae and D. Maurizio and Mazur, {P. O.} and T. McCauley and M. McEwen and McNeil, {R. R.} and Medina, {M. C.} and G. Medina-Tanco and A. Meli and D. Melo and E. Menichetti and A. Menschikov and Chr Meurer and R. Meyhandan and Micheletti, {M. I.} and G. Miele and W. Miller and S. Mollerach and M. Monasor and Ragaigne, {D. Monnier} and F. Montanet and B. Morales and C. Morello and Moreno, {J. C.} and C. Morris and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Muller, {M. A.} and R. Mussa and G. Navarra and Navarro, {J. L.} and S. Navas and P. Necesal and L. Nellen and C. Newman-Holmes and D. Newton and Nhung, {P. T.} and N. Nierstenhoefer and D. Nitz and D. Nosek and L. Nožka and J. Oehlschl{\"a}ger and T. Ohnuki and A. Olinto and Olmos-Gilbaja, {V. M.} and M. Ortiz and F. Ortolani and S. Ostapchenko and L. Otero and N. Pacheco and Selmi-Dei, {D. Pakk} and M. Palatka and J. Pallotta and G. Parente and E. Parizot and S. Parlati and S. Pastor and M. Patel and T. Paul and V. Pavlidou and K. Payet and M. Pech and J. Pȩkala and R. Pelayo and Pepe, {I. M.} and L. Perrone and S. Petrera and P. Petrinca and Y. Petrov and A. Pichel and R. Piegaia and T. Pierog and M. Pimenta and T. Pinto and V. Pirronello and O. Pisanti and M. Platino and J. Pochon and P. Privitera and M. Prouza and Quel, {E. J.} and J. Rautenberg and A. Redondo and S. Reucroft and B. Revenu and Rezende, {F. A S} and J. Ridky and S. Riggi and M. Risse and C. Rivi{\`e}re and V. Rizi and M. Roberts and C. Robledo and G. Rodriguez and Martino, {J. Rodriguez} and Rojo, {J. Rodriguez} and I. Rodriguez-Cabo and Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as, {M. D.} and G. Ros and J. Rosado and M. Roth and B. Rouill{\'e}-d'Orfeuil and E. Roulet and Rovero, {A. C.} and F. Salamida and H. Salazar and G. Salina and F. S{\'a}nchez and M. Santander and Santo, {C. E.} and Santos, {E. M.} and F. Sarazin and S. Sarkar and R. Sato and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and A. Schmidt and F. Schmidt and T. Schmidt and O. Scholten and P. Schov{\'a}nek and F. Sch{\"u}ssler and Sciutto, {S. J.} and M. Scuderi and A. Segreto and D. Semikoz and M. Settimo and Shellard, {R. C.} and I. Sidelnik and Siffert, {B. B.} and G. Sigl and {De Grande}, {N. Smetniansky} and A. Smiałkowski and R. Šm{\'i}da and Smith, {A. G K} and Smith, {B. E.} and Snow, {G. R.} and P. Sokolsky and P. Sommers and J. Sorokin and H. Spinka and R. Squartini and E. Strazzeri and A. Stutz and F. Suarez and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and Supanitsky, {A. D.} and Sutherland, {M. S.} and J. Swain and Z. Szadkowski and J. Takahashi and A. Tamashiro and A. Tamburro and O. Taşcǎu and R. Tcaciuc and Thao, {N. T.} and D. Thomas and R. Ticona and J. Tiffenberg and C. Timmermans and W. Tkaczyk and Peixoto, {C. J Todero} and B. Tom{\'e} and A. Tonachini and I. Torres and P. Travnicek and A. Tripathi and G. Tristram and D. Tscherniakhovski and M. Tueros and R. Ulrich and M. Unger and M. Urban and Galicia, {J. F Vald{\'e}s} and I. Vali{\~n}o and L. Valore and {van den Berg}, {A. M.} and {van Elewyck}, V. and V{\'a}zquez, {R. A.} and D. Veberič and A. Veiga and A. Velarde and T. Venters and V. Verzi and M. Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and S. Vorobiov and L. Voyvodic and H. Wahlberg and O. Wainberg and D. Warner and Watson, {A. A.} and S. Westerhoff and G. Wieczorek and L. Wiencke and B. Wilczyńska and H. Wilczyński and C. Wileman and Winnick, {M. G.} and H. Wu and B. Wundheiler and T. Yamamoto and P. Younk and E. Zas and D. Zavrtanik and M. Zavrtanik and A. Zech and A. Zepeda and M. Ziolkowski",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.01.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "188--204",
journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
issn = "0927-6505",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

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AU - Macolino, C.

AU - Maldera, S.

AU - Mancarella, G.

AU - Manceñido, M. E.

AU - Mandat, D.

AU - Mantsch, P.

AU - Mariazzi, A. G.

AU - Maris, I. C.

AU - Falcon, H. R Marquez

AU - Martello, D.

AU - Martínez, J.

AU - Bravo, O. Martínez

AU - Mathes, H. J.

AU - Matthews, J.

AU - Matthews, J. A J

AU - Matthiae, G.

AU - Maurizio, D.

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AU - Medina-Tanco, G.

AU - Meli, A.

AU - Melo, D.

AU - Menichetti, E.

AU - Menschikov, A.

AU - Meurer, Chr

AU - Meyhandan, R.

AU - Micheletti, M. I.

AU - Miele, G.

AU - Miller, W.

AU - Mollerach, S.

AU - Monasor, M.

AU - Ragaigne, D. Monnier

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AU - Morris, C.

AU - Mostafá, M.

AU - Muller, M. A.

AU - Mussa, R.

AU - Navarra, G.

AU - Navarro, J. L.

AU - Navas, S.

AU - Necesal, P.

AU - Nellen, L.

AU - Newman-Holmes, C.

AU - Newton, D.

AU - Nhung, P. T.

AU - Nierstenhoefer, N.

AU - Nitz, D.

AU - Nosek, D.

AU - Nožka, L.

AU - Oehlschläger, J.

AU - Ohnuki, T.

AU - Olinto, A.

AU - Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.

AU - Ortiz, M.

AU - Ortolani, F.

AU - Ostapchenko, S.

AU - Otero, L.

AU - Pacheco, N.

AU - Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk

AU - Palatka, M.

AU - Pallotta, J.

AU - Parente, G.

AU - Parizot, E.

AU - Parlati, S.

AU - Pastor, S.

AU - Patel, M.

AU - Paul, T.

AU - Pavlidou, V.

AU - Payet, K.

AU - Pech, M.

AU - Pȩkala, J.

AU - Pelayo, R.

AU - Pepe, I. M.

AU - Perrone, L.

AU - Petrera, S.

AU - Petrinca, P.

AU - Petrov, Y.

AU - Pichel, A.

AU - Piegaia, R.

AU - Pierog, T.

AU - Pimenta, M.

AU - Pinto, T.

AU - Pirronello, V.

AU - Pisanti, O.

AU - Platino, M.

AU - Pochon, J.

AU - Privitera, P.

AU - Prouza, M.

AU - Quel, E. J.

AU - Rautenberg, J.

AU - Redondo, A.

AU - Reucroft, S.

AU - Revenu, B.

AU - Rezende, F. A S

AU - Ridky, J.

AU - Riggi, S.

AU - Risse, M.

AU - Rivière, C.

AU - Rizi, V.

AU - Roberts, M.

AU - Robledo, C.

AU - Rodriguez, G.

AU - Martino, J. Rodriguez

AU - Rojo, J. Rodriguez

AU - Rodriguez-Cabo, I.

AU - Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.

AU - Ros, G.

AU - Rosado, J.

AU - Roth, M.

AU - Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.

AU - Roulet, E.

AU - Rovero, A. C.

AU - Salamida, F.

AU - Salazar, H.

AU - Salina, G.

AU - Sánchez, F.

AU - Santander, M.

AU - Santo, C. E.

AU - Santos, E. M.

AU - Sarazin, F.

AU - Sarkar, S.

AU - Sato, R.

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AU - Schieler, H.

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AU - Schmidt, F.

AU - Schmidt, T.

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AU - Schovánek, P.

AU - Schüssler, F.

AU - Sciutto, S. J.

AU - Scuderi, M.

AU - Segreto, A.

AU - Semikoz, D.

AU - Settimo, M.

AU - Shellard, R. C.

AU - Sidelnik, I.

AU - Siffert, B. B.

AU - Sigl, G.

AU - De Grande, N. Smetniansky

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AU - Snow, G. R.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

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AU - Takahashi, J.

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AU - Taşcǎu, O.

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AU - Thao, N. T.

AU - Thomas, D.

AU - Ticona, R.

AU - Tiffenberg, J.

AU - Timmermans, C.

AU - Tkaczyk, W.

AU - Peixoto, C. J Todero

AU - Tomé, B.

AU - Tonachini, A.

AU - Torres, I.

AU - Travnicek, P.

AU - Tripathi, A.

AU - Tristram, G.

AU - Tscherniakhovski, D.

AU - Tueros, M.

AU - Ulrich, R.

AU - Unger, M.

AU - Urban, M.

AU - Galicia, J. F Valdés

AU - Valiño, I.

AU - Valore, L.

AU - van den Berg, A. M.

AU - van Elewyck, V.

AU - Vázquez, R. A.

AU - Veberič, D.

AU - Veiga, A.

AU - Velarde, A.

AU - Venters, T.

AU - Verzi, V.

AU - Videla, M.

AU - Villaseñor, L.

AU - Vorobiov, S.

AU - Voyvodic, L.

AU - Wahlberg, H.

AU - Wainberg, O.

AU - Warner, D.

AU - Watson, A. A.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Wieczorek, G.

AU - Wiencke, L.

AU - Wilczyńska, B.

AU - Wilczyński, H.

AU - Wileman, C.

AU - Winnick, M. G.

AU - Wu, H.

AU - Wundheiler, B.

AU - Yamamoto, T.

AU - Younk, P.

AU - Zas, E.

AU - Zavrtanik, D.

AU - Zavrtanik, M.

AU - Zech, A.

AU - Zepeda, A.

AU - Ziolkowski, M.

PY - 2008/4

Y1 - 2008/4

N2 - Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ∼6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ∼75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

AB - Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ∼6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ∼75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

KW - AGN

KW - Anisotropy

KW - Auger

KW - EGMF

KW - Extra-galactic

KW - GMF

KW - GZK

KW - High energy cosmic rays

KW - Observatory

KW - UHECR

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=40949094778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=40949094778&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.01.002

DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.01.002

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 188

EP - 204

JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

IS - 3

ER -