Correlates of self-efficacy beliefs among patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Zagreb, Yugoslavia

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Cross-cultural application of a measure of diabetic self-efficacy, the Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale (DSES), was carried out in a sample of 147 patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) attending an outpatient clinic in Zagreb, Yugoslavia. A survey questionnaire covered the following demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, self-and physician-rated adherence to the diabetic regimen, and diabetes self-efficacy (DSES). Disease-related factors, assessed by chart review, included disease duration, the presence of complications, and level of HbA1c. Correlational analyses revealed that, as hypothesized, behavioral and psychological factors were more strongly associated with self-efficacy beliefs than were disease-related factors. Higher DSES scores were associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, higher self-rated adherence, and lower depressive symptoms. Correlations between level of HbAl c and DSES scores and between HbAlc and adherence ratings were very weak. Findings are discussed in relation to previous studies on diabetes self-efficacy (all conducted in the United States) and as they relate to clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-147
Number of pages9
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1991



  • Adherence to the diabetic regimen
  • Cross-cultural research
  • Depression
  • Diabetes self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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