Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s: An American Experience and Current Review

Victor Lopez, Richard Ma, Meryle G. Weinstein, Robert C. Cantu, Laurel S D Myers, Nisha S. Nadkar, Christian Victoria, Answorth A. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Purpose There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. Methods This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Results Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P < 0.001). Nonelite backs had higher concussive injury rates compared with forwards (7.7/1000 ph; 3.6/1000 ph; RR = 1.28, P = 0.024). Women missed 36.7 d absence from play, meanwhile men missed 27.9 d (P = 0.245). Retrospective history recall reflected previous concussive injuries occurred in 43% of the current study's cohort; of these, 57% encountered multiple concussions within 1 yr. The incidence of repetitive concussions was not statistically different between genders (RR = 1.09, P = 0.754). Most concussions occurred from tackles (63%) and collisions (24%) (P = 0.056). Conclusions Sports-related concussions occurred with frequency among US amateur Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-To-play protocol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1320-1330
Number of pages11
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume48
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Fingerprint

Football
Wounds and Injuries
Odds Ratio
Sports
Incidence
Epidemiology
Cohort Studies
History
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • AMATEUR
  • BRAIN INJURIES
  • CONCUSSION
  • ELITE
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • HEAD INJURIES
  • RISK FACTORS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s : An American Experience and Current Review. / Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Weinstein, Meryle G.; Cantu, Robert C.; Myers, Laurel S D; Nadkar, Nisha S.; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 48, No. 7, 01.07.2016, p. 1320-1330.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Lopez, V, Ma, R, Weinstein, MG, Cantu, RC, Myers, LSD, Nadkar, NS, Victoria, C & Allen, AA 2016, 'Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s: An American Experience and Current Review', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1320-1330. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000892
Lopez, Victor ; Ma, Richard ; Weinstein, Meryle G. ; Cantu, Robert C. ; Myers, Laurel S D ; Nadkar, Nisha S. ; Victoria, Christian ; Allen, Answorth A. / Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s : An American Experience and Current Review. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2016 ; Vol. 48, No. 7. pp. 1320-1330.
@article{e97706002ac84f5c8aa93f5e774b5e4b,
title = "Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s: An American Experience and Current Review",
abstract = "Purpose There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. Methods This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Results Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P < 0.001). Nonelite backs had higher concussive injury rates compared with forwards (7.7/1000 ph; 3.6/1000 ph; RR = 1.28, P = 0.024). Women missed 36.7 d absence from play, meanwhile men missed 27.9 d (P = 0.245). Retrospective history recall reflected previous concussive injuries occurred in 43{\%} of the current study's cohort; of these, 57{\%} encountered multiple concussions within 1 yr. The incidence of repetitive concussions was not statistically different between genders (RR = 1.09, P = 0.754). Most concussions occurred from tackles (63{\%}) and collisions (24{\%}) (P = 0.056). Conclusions Sports-related concussions occurred with frequency among US amateur Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-To-play protocol.",
keywords = "AMATEUR, BRAIN INJURIES, CONCUSSION, ELITE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, HEAD INJURIES, RISK FACTORS",
author = "Victor Lopez and Richard Ma and Weinstein, {Meryle G.} and Cantu, {Robert C.} and Myers, {Laurel S D} and Nadkar, {Nisha S.} and Christian Victoria and Allen, {Answorth A.}",
year = "2016",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1249/MSS.0000000000000892",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "48",
pages = "1320--1330",
journal = "Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s

T2 - An American Experience and Current Review

AU - Lopez, Victor

AU - Ma, Richard

AU - Weinstein, Meryle G.

AU - Cantu, Robert C.

AU - Myers, Laurel S D

AU - Nadkar, Nisha S.

AU - Victoria, Christian

AU - Allen, Answorth A.

PY - 2016/7/1

Y1 - 2016/7/1

N2 - Purpose There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. Methods This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Results Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P < 0.001). Nonelite backs had higher concussive injury rates compared with forwards (7.7/1000 ph; 3.6/1000 ph; RR = 1.28, P = 0.024). Women missed 36.7 d absence from play, meanwhile men missed 27.9 d (P = 0.245). Retrospective history recall reflected previous concussive injuries occurred in 43% of the current study's cohort; of these, 57% encountered multiple concussions within 1 yr. The incidence of repetitive concussions was not statistically different between genders (RR = 1.09, P = 0.754). Most concussions occurred from tackles (63%) and collisions (24%) (P = 0.056). Conclusions Sports-related concussions occurred with frequency among US amateur Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-To-play protocol.

AB - Purpose There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. Methods This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Results Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P < 0.001). Nonelite backs had higher concussive injury rates compared with forwards (7.7/1000 ph; 3.6/1000 ph; RR = 1.28, P = 0.024). Women missed 36.7 d absence from play, meanwhile men missed 27.9 d (P = 0.245). Retrospective history recall reflected previous concussive injuries occurred in 43% of the current study's cohort; of these, 57% encountered multiple concussions within 1 yr. The incidence of repetitive concussions was not statistically different between genders (RR = 1.09, P = 0.754). Most concussions occurred from tackles (63%) and collisions (24%) (P = 0.056). Conclusions Sports-related concussions occurred with frequency among US amateur Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-To-play protocol.

KW - AMATEUR

KW - BRAIN INJURIES

KW - CONCUSSION

KW - ELITE

KW - EPIDEMIOLOGY

KW - HEAD INJURIES

KW - RISK FACTORS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84975478011&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84975478011&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000892

DO - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000892

M3 - Review article

VL - 48

SP - 1320

EP - 1330

JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

JF - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 7

ER -