Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive blacks versus whites

Gbenga Ogedegbe, Nirav R. Shah, Christopher Phillips, Keith Goldfeld, Jason Roy, Yu Guo, Joyce Gyamfi, Christopher Torgersen, Louis Capponi, Sripal Bangalore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background Clinical trial evidence suggests poorer outcomes in blacks compared with whites when treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-based regimen, but this has not been evaluated in clinical practice. Objectives This study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of an ACE inhibitor-based regimen on a composite outcome of all-cause mortality, stroke, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in hypertensive blacks compared with whites. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 434,646 patients in a municipal health care system. Four exposure groups (Black-ACE, Black-NoACE, White-ACE, White-NoACE) were created based on race and treatment exposure (ACE or NoACE). Risk of the composite outcome and its components was compared across treatment groups and race using weighted Cox proportional hazard models. Results Our analysis included 59,316 new users of ACE inhibitors, 47% of whom were black. Baseline characteristics were comparable for all groups after inverse probability weighting adjustment. For the composite outcome, the race treatment interaction was significant (p = 0.04); ACE use in blacks was associated with poorer cardiovascular outcomes (ACE vs. NoACE: 8.69% vs. 7.74%; p = 0.05) but not in whites (6.40% vs. 6.74%; p = 0.37). Similarly, the Black-ACE group had higher rates of AMI (0.46% vs. 0.26%; p = 0.04), stroke (2.43% vs. 1.93%; p = 0.05), and congestive heart failure (3.75% vs. 2.25%; p < 0.0001) than the Black-NoACE group. However, the Black-ACE group was no more likely to develop adverse effects than the White-ACE group. Conclusions ACE inhibitor-based therapy was associated with poorer cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive blacks but not in whites. These findings confirm clinical trial evidence that hypertensive blacks have poorer outcomes than whites when treated with an ACE inhibitor-based regimen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1224-1233
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 15 2015



  • antihypertensive medications
  • cardiovascular disease
  • electronic health record
  • race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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