Combining Full and Partial Haptic Guidance Improves Handwriting Skills Development

Akiko Teranishi, Georgios Korres, Wanjoo Park, Mohamad Eid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


It has been shown in previous studies that haptic guidance improves the learning outcomes of handwriting motor skills. Full and partial haptic guidance are developed and evaluated in the literature. In this paper, we present two experimental studies to examine whether combining full and partial haptic guidance is more effective for improving handwriting skills than merely full or partial guidance methods. Experiment I, with 22 participants, compares the effectiveness of merely full and partial haptic guidance methods towards improving learning outcomes of Arabic handwriting. Even though haptic guidance in general is found to be effective and pleasant by all participants, experiment I concludes that there are no statistically significant differences in the learning outcomes between full and partial haptic guidance. Experiment II investigates whether a combination of full and partial haptic guidance could further improve the learning outcomes, compared to merely full or partial haptic guidance. The learning outcomes and quality of experience are measured to evaluate each group's performance. Results from experiment II demonstrate that the combination of full and partial haptic guidance results in statistically significant improvements in the quality of handwriting, compared to mere full or partial haptic guidance. In particular, starting with partial haptic guidance at early stage of learning and then using full guidance at intermediate/advanced learning stages seemed to be the most effective. This implies that partial haptic guidance is more effective to learn the gross shape of handwriting skills (at early stages of the learning process) whereas full haptic guidance is more effective to learn the fine details of the handwriting skills (at intermediate or advanced stage of learning). Therefore, partial-then-full haptic guidance seems to be the most effective to improve learning outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8400473
Pages (from-to)509-517
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018



  • Haptic interfaces
  • evaluation/methodology
  • psychology
  • user-centered design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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