Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro

Jie Pan, Ke Sun, Yongdong Liang, Peng Sun, Xiaohui Yang, Jing Wang, Jue Zhang, Weidong Zhu, Jing Fang, Kurt H. Becker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Complete sterilization of an infected root canal is an important challenge in endodontic treatment. Traditional methods often cannot achieve high-efficiency sterilization because of the complexity of the root canal system. The objective of the study was to investigate in vitro the feasibility of using a cold plasma treatment of a root canal infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Methods: Seventy single-root teeth infected with E. faecalis biofilms were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 served as the negative control group (no treatment), and group 7 was the positive control group with teeth treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication for 7 days. Groups 2 to 6 included teeth treated by cold plasma for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes, respectively. The disinfection of the E. faecalis biofilm was evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the structural changes of the E. faecalis biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to investigate the vitality of the microorganisms in the biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Results: A significant decrease in the number of CFUs was observed after prolonged cold plasma treatment (based on the statistical analysis of the teeth in groups 2-6). Compared with the positive control group, cold plasma treatment of 8 or 10 minutes (groups 5 and 6) had a significantly higher antimicrobial efficacy (P <.05). The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that the bacteria membrane was ruptured, and the structure of the biofilm was fully destroyed by the plasma. Confocal scanning laser microscopic studies indicated that the plasma treatment induced E. faecalis death and destruction of the biofilm. Conclusions: The cold plasma had a high efficiency in disinfecting the E. faecalis biofilms in in vitro dental root canal treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-110
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Volume39
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

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Plasma Gases
Tooth Root
Cryotherapy
Enterococcus faecalis
Dental Pulp Cavity
Biofilms
Tooth
Control Groups
Therapeutics
Calcium Hydroxide
In Vitro Techniques
Endodontics
Disinfection
Confocal Microscopy
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Lasers
Stem Cells
Electrons
Bacteria
Membranes

Keywords

  • Biofilm
  • cold plasma
  • disinfection
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • root canal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. / Pan, Jie; Sun, Ke; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Peng; Yang, Xiaohui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Zhu, Weidong; Fang, Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

In: Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 39, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 105-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pan, J, Sun, K, Liang, Y, Sun, P, Yang, X, Wang, J, Zhang, J, Zhu, W, Fang, J & Becker, KH 2013, 'Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro', Journal of Endodontics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.08.017
Pan, Jie ; Sun, Ke ; Liang, Yongdong ; Sun, Peng ; Yang, Xiaohui ; Wang, Jing ; Zhang, Jue ; Zhu, Weidong ; Fang, Jing ; Becker, Kurt H. / Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. In: Journal of Endodontics. 2013 ; Vol. 39, No. 1. pp. 105-110.
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AU - Pan, Jie

AU - Sun, Ke

AU - Liang, Yongdong

AU - Sun, Peng

AU - Yang, Xiaohui

AU - Wang, Jing

AU - Zhang, Jue

AU - Zhu, Weidong

AU - Fang, Jing

AU - Becker, Kurt H.

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N2 - Introduction: Complete sterilization of an infected root canal is an important challenge in endodontic treatment. Traditional methods often cannot achieve high-efficiency sterilization because of the complexity of the root canal system. The objective of the study was to investigate in vitro the feasibility of using a cold plasma treatment of a root canal infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Methods: Seventy single-root teeth infected with E. faecalis biofilms were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 served as the negative control group (no treatment), and group 7 was the positive control group with teeth treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication for 7 days. Groups 2 to 6 included teeth treated by cold plasma for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes, respectively. The disinfection of the E. faecalis biofilm was evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the structural changes of the E. faecalis biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to investigate the vitality of the microorganisms in the biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Results: A significant decrease in the number of CFUs was observed after prolonged cold plasma treatment (based on the statistical analysis of the teeth in groups 2-6). Compared with the positive control group, cold plasma treatment of 8 or 10 minutes (groups 5 and 6) had a significantly higher antimicrobial efficacy (P <.05). The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that the bacteria membrane was ruptured, and the structure of the biofilm was fully destroyed by the plasma. Confocal scanning laser microscopic studies indicated that the plasma treatment induced E. faecalis death and destruction of the biofilm. Conclusions: The cold plasma had a high efficiency in disinfecting the E. faecalis biofilms in in vitro dental root canal treatment.

AB - Introduction: Complete sterilization of an infected root canal is an important challenge in endodontic treatment. Traditional methods often cannot achieve high-efficiency sterilization because of the complexity of the root canal system. The objective of the study was to investigate in vitro the feasibility of using a cold plasma treatment of a root canal infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Methods: Seventy single-root teeth infected with E. faecalis biofilms were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 served as the negative control group (no treatment), and group 7 was the positive control group with teeth treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication for 7 days. Groups 2 to 6 included teeth treated by cold plasma for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes, respectively. The disinfection of the E. faecalis biofilm was evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the structural changes of the E. faecalis biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to investigate the vitality of the microorganisms in the biofilm before and after plasma treatment. Results: A significant decrease in the number of CFUs was observed after prolonged cold plasma treatment (based on the statistical analysis of the teeth in groups 2-6). Compared with the positive control group, cold plasma treatment of 8 or 10 minutes (groups 5 and 6) had a significantly higher antimicrobial efficacy (P <.05). The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that the bacteria membrane was ruptured, and the structure of the biofilm was fully destroyed by the plasma. Confocal scanning laser microscopic studies indicated that the plasma treatment induced E. faecalis death and destruction of the biofilm. Conclusions: The cold plasma had a high efficiency in disinfecting the E. faecalis biofilms in in vitro dental root canal treatment.

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KW - disinfection

KW - Enterococcus faecalis

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