Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrhmane, J. BerdermannP. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, S. Buitink, M. Carson, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, S. Cohen, C. Colnard, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. DeYoung, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegård, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, M. Geisler, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, Y. Hasegawa, J. Haugen, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, A. Homeier, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, M. Inaba, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, N. Kemming, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, N. Kitamura, S. R. Klein, S. Knops, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, T. Krings, G. Kroll, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, A. Laundrie, R. Lehmann, D. Lennarz, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, M. Matusik, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, T. Meures, E. Middell, N. Milke, H. Miyamoto, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, U. Naumann, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, A. C. Pohl, R. Porrata, J. Posselt, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, P. Robl, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, D. Rutledge, B. Ruzybayev, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, P. Sandstrom, S. Sarkar, K. Schatto, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, A. Schultes, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, A. Tamburro, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, C. Terranova, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turčan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, J. Van Santen, B. Voigt, D. Wahl, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Wallraff, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, C. Xu, X. W. Xu, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, P. Zarzhitsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-152
Number of pages14
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume618
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

Photomultipliers
photomultiplier tubes
Photons
Calibration
photons
neutrinos
saturation
nitrogen lasers
Cosmic rays
cosmic ray showers
Observatories
Photoelectrons
Parameterization
pulses
parameterization
Photonics
Ice
Poles
observatories
ice

Keywords

  • Cherenkov
  • Cosmic rays
  • Ice
  • Neutrino
  • PMT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Haugen, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Laundrie, A.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robl, P.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Sandstrom, P.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Wahl, D.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 618, No. 1-3, 01.06.2010, p. 139-152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Abu-Zayyad, T, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Lotfi Benabderrhmane, M, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Botner, O, Bradley, L, Braun, J, Buitink, S, Carson, M, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clem, J, Cohen, S, Colnard, C, Cowen, DF, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, De Clercq, C, Demirörs, L, Depaepe, O, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, DeYoung, T, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Duvoort, MR, Ehrlich, R, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegård, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Foerster, MM, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Ganugapati, R, Geisler, M, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gunasingha, RM, Gurtner, M, Ha, C, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Hasegawa, Y, Haugen, J, Helbing, K, Herquet, P, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Homeier, A, Hoshina, K, Hubert, D, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Imlay, RL, Inaba, M, Ishihara, A, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Joseph, JM, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kelley, JL, Kemming, N, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Kitamura, N, Klein, SR, Knops, S, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Koskinen, DJ, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Krings, T, Kroll, G, Kuehn, K, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Lafebre, S, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Lauer, R, Laundrie, A, Lehmann, R, Lennarz, D, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Majumdar, P, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, Matusik, M, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Meures, T, Middell, E, Milke, N, Miyamoto, H, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Naumann, U, Nießen, P, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, Ono, M, Panknin, S, Paul, L, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Pohl, AC, Porrata, R, Posselt, J, Price, PB, Prikockis, M, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Rizzo, A, Robl, P, Rodrigues, JP, Roth, P, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Roucelle, C, Rutledge, D, Ruzybayev, B, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Sandstrom, P, Sarkar, S, Schatto, K, Schlenstedt, S, Schmidt, T, Schneider, D, Schukraft, A, Schultes, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Slipak, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stephens, G, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stoyanov, S, Strahler, EA, Straszheim, T, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taboada, I, Tamburro, A, Tarasova, O, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Terranova, C, Tilav, S, Toale, PA, Tosi, D, Turčan, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Van Santen, J, Voigt, B, Wahl, D, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Wallraff, M, Walter, M, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebe, K, Wiebusch, CH, Wikström, G, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Woschnagg, K, Xu, C, Xu, XW, Yodh, G, Yoshida, S & Zarzhitsky, P 2010, 'Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 618, no. 1-3, pp. 139-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.03.102
Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Botner, O. ; Bradley, L. ; Braun, J. ; Buitink, S. ; Carson, M. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clem, J. ; Cohen, S. ; Colnard, C. ; Cowen, D. F. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; De Clercq, C. ; Demirörs, L. ; Depaepe, O. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; DeYoung, T. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Duvoort, M. R. ; Ehrlich, R. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegård, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Foerster, M. M. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Geisler, M. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gunasingha, R. M. ; Gurtner, M. ; Ha, C. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Hasegawa, Y. ; Haugen, J. ; Helbing, K. ; Herquet, P. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Homeier, A. ; Hoshina, K. ; Hubert, D. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Imlay, R. L. ; Inaba, M. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Joseph, J. M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kelley, J. L. ; Kemming, N. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Kitamura, N. ; Klein, S. R. ; Knops, S. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Koskinen, D. J. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Krings, T. ; Kroll, G. ; Kuehn, K. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Lafebre, S. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Lauer, R. ; Laundrie, A. ; Lehmann, R. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Majumdar, P. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; Matusik, M. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Meures, T. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Miyamoto, H. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Naumann, U. ; Nießen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; Ono, M. ; Panknin, S. ; Paul, L. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Pohl, A. C. ; Porrata, R. ; Posselt, J. ; Price, P. B. ; Prikockis, M. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Rizzo, A. ; Robl, P. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Roth, P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Roucelle, C. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ruzybayev, B. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Sandstrom, P. ; Sarkar, S. ; Schatto, K. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schneider, D. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schultes, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Slipak, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stephens, G. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stoyanov, S. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Straszheim, T. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taboada, I. ; Tamburro, A. ; Tarasova, O. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Terranova, C. ; Tilav, S. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tosi, D. ; Turčan, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Van Santen, J. ; Voigt, B. ; Wahl, D. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Wallraff, M. ; Walter, M. ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebe, K. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wikström, G. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, C. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. ; Zarzhitsky, P. / Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2010 ; Vol. 618, No. 1-3. pp. 139-152.
@article{1563e300030c4af389d72c53f678e9db,
title = "Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube",
abstract = "Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.",
keywords = "Cherenkov, Cosmic rays, Ice, Neutrino, PMT",
author = "R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and T. Abu-Zayyad and J. Adams and Aguilar, {J. A.} and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and Barwick, {S. W.} and R. Bay and {Bazo Alba}, {J. L.} and K. Beattie and Beatty, {J. J.} and S. Bechet and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Besson, {D. Z.} and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and Boersma, {D. J.} and C. Bohm and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and S. Buitink and M. Carson and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and S. Cohen and C. Colnard and Cowen, {D. F.} and D'Agostino, {M. V.} and M. Danninger and {De Clercq}, C. and L. Demir{\"o}rs and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and {De Vries-Uiterweerd}, G. and T. DeYoung and D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez, {J. C.} and J. Dreyer and Dumm, {J. P.} and Duvoort, {M. R.} and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and O. Engdeg{\aa}rd and S. Euler and Evenson, {P. A.} and O. Fadiran and Fazely, {A. R.} and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and Foerster, {M. M.} and Fox, {B. D.} and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and Gaisser, {T. K.} and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and M. Geisler and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and A. Goldschmidt and Goodman, {J. A.} and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and Gunasingha, {R. M.} and M. Gurtner and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and Y. Hasegawa and J. Haugen and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and Hill, {G. C.} and Hoffman, {K. D.} and A. Homeier and K. Hoshina and D. Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and H{\"u}l{\ss}, {J. P.} and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and Imlay, {R. L.} and M. Inaba and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and Japaridze, {G. S.} and H. Johansson and Joseph, {J. M.} and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and Kelley, {J. L.} and N. Kemming and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and N. Kitamura and Klein, {S. R.} and S. Knops and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and Koskinen, {D. J.} and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and T. Krings and G. Kroll and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and A. Laundrie and R. Lehmann and D. Lennarz and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and Matis, {H. S.} and M. Matusik and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and T. Meures and E. Middell and N. Milke and H. Miyamoto and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and Movit, {S. M.} and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and U. Naumann and P. Nie{\ss}en and Nygren, {D. R.} and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and L. Paul and {P{\'e}rez De Los Heros}, C. and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and Pohl, {A. C.} and R. Porrata and J. Posselt and Price, {P. B.} and M. Prikockis and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and P. Robl and Rodrigues, {J. P.} and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and D. Rutledge and B. Ruzybayev and D. Ryckbosch and Sander, {H. G.} and P. Sandstrom and S. Sarkar and K. Schatto and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and A. Schultes and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and Seo, {S. H.} and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and Stokstad, {R. G.} and S. Stoyanov and Strahler, {E. A.} and T. Straszheim and Sullivan, {G. W.} and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and A. Tamburro and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and C. Terranova and S. Tilav and Toale, {P. A.} and D. Tosi and D. Turčan and {Van Eijndhoven}, N. and J. Vandenbroucke and {Van Overloop}, A. and {Van Santen}, J. and B. Voigt and D. Wahl and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Wallraff and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and K. Wiebe and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and G. Wikstr{\"o}m and Williams, {D. R.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and C. Xu and Xu, {X. W.} and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.nima.2010.03.102",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "618",
pages = "139--152",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment",
issn = "0168-9002",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube

AU - Abbasi, R.

AU - Abdou, Y.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Adams, J.

AU - Aguilar, J. A.

AU - Ahlers, M.

AU - Andeen, K.

AU - Auffenberg, J.

AU - Bai, X.

AU - Baker, M.

AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R.

AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

AU - Beattie, K.

AU - Beatty, J. J.

AU - Bechet, S.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

AU - Berdermann, J.

AU - Berghaus, P.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Bertrand, D.

AU - Besson, D. Z.

AU - Bissok, M.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Boersma, D. J.

AU - Bohm, C.

AU - Botner, O.

AU - Bradley, L.

AU - Braun, J.

AU - Buitink, S.

AU - Carson, M.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Christy, B.

AU - Clem, J.

AU - Cohen, S.

AU - Colnard, C.

AU - Cowen, D. F.

AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

AU - Danninger, M.

AU - De Clercq, C.

AU - Demirörs, L.

AU - Depaepe, O.

AU - Descamps, F.

AU - Desiati, P.

AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

AU - DeYoung, T.

AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

AU - Dreyer, J.

AU - Dumm, J. P.

AU - Duvoort, M. R.

AU - Ehrlich, R.

AU - Eisch, J.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Engdegård, O.

AU - Euler, S.

AU - Evenson, P. A.

AU - Fadiran, O.

AU - Fazely, A. R.

AU - Feusels, T.

AU - Filimonov, K.

AU - Finley, C.

AU - Foerster, M. M.

AU - Fox, B. D.

AU - Franckowiak, A.

AU - Franke, R.

AU - Gaisser, T. K.

AU - Gallagher, J.

AU - Ganugapati, R.

AU - Geisler, M.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Gladstone, L.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Grant, D.

AU - Griesel, T.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Grullon, S.

AU - Gunasingha, R. M.

AU - Gurtner, M.

AU - Ha, C.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

AU - Han, K.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Hasegawa, Y.

AU - Haugen, J.

AU - Helbing, K.

AU - Herquet, P.

AU - Hickford, S.

AU - Hill, G. C.

AU - Hoffman, K. D.

AU - Homeier, A.

AU - Hoshina, K.

AU - Hubert, D.

AU - Huelsnitz, W.

AU - Hülß, J. P.

AU - Hulth, P. O.

AU - Hultqvist, K.

AU - Hussain, S.

AU - Imlay, R. L.

AU - Inaba, M.

AU - Ishihara, A.

AU - Jacobsen, J.

AU - Japaridze, G. S.

AU - Johansson, H.

AU - Joseph, J. M.

AU - Kampert, K. H.

AU - Kappes, A.

AU - Karg, T.

AU - Karle, A.

AU - Kelley, J. L.

AU - Kemming, N.

AU - Kenny, P.

AU - Kiryluk, J.

AU - Kislat, F.

AU - Kitamura, N.

AU - Klein, S. R.

AU - Knops, S.

AU - Kohnen, G.

AU - Kolanoski, H.

AU - Köpke, L.

AU - Koskinen, D. J.

AU - Kowalski, M.

AU - Kowarik, T.

AU - Krasberg, M.

AU - Krings, T.

AU - Kroll, G.

AU - Kuehn, K.

AU - Kuwabara, T.

AU - Labare, M.

AU - Lafebre, S.

AU - Laihem, K.

AU - Landsman, H.

AU - Lauer, R.

AU - Laundrie, A.

AU - Lehmann, R.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - Lünemann, J.

AU - Madsen, J.

AU - Majumdar, P.

AU - Maruyama, R.

AU - Mase, K.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - Matusik, M.

AU - Meagher, K.

AU - Merck, M.

AU - Mészáros, P.

AU - Meures, T.

AU - Middell, E.

AU - Milke, N.

AU - Miyamoto, H.

AU - Montaruli, T.

AU - Morse, R.

AU - Movit, S. M.

AU - Nahnhauer, R.

AU - Nam, J. W.

AU - Naumann, U.

AU - Nießen, P.

AU - Nygren, D. R.

AU - Odrowski, S.

AU - Olivas, A.

AU - Olivo, M.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Panknin, S.

AU - Paul, L.

AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

AU - Petrovic, J.

AU - Piegsa, A.

AU - Pieloth, D.

AU - Pohl, A. C.

AU - Porrata, R.

AU - Posselt, J.

AU - Price, P. B.

AU - Prikockis, M.

AU - Przybylski, G. T.

AU - Rawlins, K.

AU - Redl, P.

AU - Resconi, E.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribordy, M.

AU - Rizzo, A.

AU - Robl, P.

AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

AU - Roth, P.

AU - Rothmaier, F.

AU - Rott, C.

AU - Roucelle, C.

AU - Rutledge, D.

AU - Ruzybayev, B.

AU - Ryckbosch, D.

AU - Sander, H. G.

AU - Sandstrom, P.

AU - Sarkar, S.

AU - Schatto, K.

AU - Schlenstedt, S.

AU - Schmidt, T.

AU - Schneider, D.

AU - Schukraft, A.

AU - Schultes, A.

AU - Schulz, O.

AU - Schunck, M.

AU - Seckel, D.

AU - Semburg, B.

AU - Seo, S. H.

AU - Sestayo, Y.

AU - Seunarine, S.

AU - Silvestri, A.

AU - Slipak, A.

AU - Spiczak, G. M.

AU - Spiering, C.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Stanev, T.

AU - Stephens, G.

AU - Stezelberger, T.

AU - Stokstad, R. G.

AU - Stoyanov, S.

AU - Strahler, E. A.

AU - Straszheim, T.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Swillens, Q.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tamburro, A.

AU - Tarasova, O.

AU - Tepe, A.

AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

AU - Terranova, C.

AU - Tilav, S.

AU - Toale, P. A.

AU - Tosi, D.

AU - Turčan, D.

AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

AU - Van Overloop, A.

AU - Van Santen, J.

AU - Voigt, B.

AU - Wahl, D.

AU - Walck, C.

AU - Waldenmaier, T.

AU - Wallraff, M.

AU - Walter, M.

AU - Wendt, C.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Whitehorn, N.

AU - Wiebe, K.

AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

AU - Wikström, G.

AU - Williams, D. R.

AU - Wischnewski, R.

AU - Wissing, H.

AU - Woschnagg, K.

AU - Xu, C.

AU - Xu, X. W.

AU - Yodh, G.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Zarzhitsky, P.

PY - 2010/6/1

Y1 - 2010/6/1

N2 - Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

AB - Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

KW - Cherenkov

KW - Cosmic rays

KW - Ice

KW - Neutrino

KW - PMT

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77957556888&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77957556888&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2010.03.102

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2010.03.102

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77957556888

VL - 618

SP - 139

EP - 152

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

IS - 1-3

ER -