Bouts of steps: The organization of infant exploration

Whitney G. Cole, Scott R. Robinson, Karen Adolph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Adults primarily walk to reach a new location, but why do infants walk? Do infants, like adults, walk to travel to a distant goal? We observed 30 13-month-old and 30 19-month-old infants during natural walking in a laboratory playroom. We characterized the bout structure of walking-when infants start and stop walking-to examine why infants start and stop walking. Locomotor activity was composed largely of brief spurts of walking. Half of 13-month-olds' bouts and 41% of 19-month-olds' bouts consisted of three or fewer steps-too few to carry infants to a distant goal. Most bouts ended in the middle of the floor, not at a recognizable goal. Survival analyses of the distribution of steps per bout indicated that the probability of continuing to walk was independent of the length of the ongoing bout; infants were just as likely to stop walking after five steps as after 50 steps and they showed no bias toward bouts long enough to carry them across the room to a goal. However, 13-month-olds showed an increased probability of stopping after 1-3 steps, and they did not initiate walking more frequently to compensate for their surfeit of short bouts. We propose that infants' natural walking is not intentionally directed at distant goals; rather, it is a stochastic process that serves exploratory functions. Relations between the bout structure of walking and other measures of walking suggest that locomotor exploration is constrained by walking skill in younger infants, but not in older infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-354
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopmental Psychobiology
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

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Walking
Stochastic Processes
Locomotion
Survival Analysis

Keywords

  • Exploration
  • Infant
  • Locomotion
  • Survivor analysis
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Bouts of steps : The organization of infant exploration. / Cole, Whitney G.; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen.

In: Developmental Psychobiology, Vol. 58, No. 3, 01.04.2016, p. 341-354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cole, Whitney G. ; Robinson, Scott R. ; Adolph, Karen. / Bouts of steps : The organization of infant exploration. In: Developmental Psychobiology. 2016 ; Vol. 58, No. 3. pp. 341-354.
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