Black hole's quantum N-portrait

G. Dvali, C. Gomez

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We establish a quantum measure of classicality in the form of the occupation number, N, of gravitons in a gravitational field. This allows us to view classical background geometries as quantum Bose-condensates with large occupation numbers of soft gravitons. We show that among all possible sources of a given physical length, N is maximized by the black hole and coincides with its entropy. The emerging quantum mechanical picture of a black hole is surprisingly simple and fully parameterized by N. The black hole is a leaky bound-state in form of a cold Bose-condensate of N weakly-interacting soft gravitons of wave-length √N times the Planck length and of quantum interaction strength 1/N. Such a bound-state exists for an arbitrary N. This picture provides a simple quantum description of the phenomena of Hawking radiation, Bekenstein entropy as well as of non-Wilsonian UV-self-completion of Einstein gravity. We show that Hawking radiation is nothing but a quantum depletion of the graviton Bose-condensate, which despite the zero temperature of the condensate produces a thermal spectrum of temperature T = 1/(√N). The Bekenstein entropy originates from the exponentially growing with N number of quantum states. Finally, our quantum picture allows to understand classicalization of deep-UV gravitational scattering as 2 → N transition. We point out some fundamental similarities between the black holes and solitons, such as a t'Hooft-Polyakov monopole. Both objects represent Bose-condensates of N soft bosons of wavelength √N and interaction strength 1/N. In short, the semi-classical black hole physics is 1/N-coupled large-N quantum physics.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)742-767
    Number of pages26
    JournalFortschritte der Physik
    Volume61
    Issue number7-8
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    gravitons
    condensates
    entropy
    occupation
    physics
    radiation
    monopoles
    gravitational fields
    emerging
    depletion
    bosons
    solitary waves
    interactions
    gravitation
    temperature
    geometry
    scattering
    wavelengths

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physics and Astronomy(all)

    Cite this

    Black hole's quantum N-portrait. / Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.

    In: Fortschritte der Physik, Vol. 61, No. 7-8, 2013, p. 742-767.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Dvali, G & Gomez, C 2013, 'Black hole's quantum N-portrait', Fortschritte der Physik, vol. 61, no. 7-8, pp. 742-767. https://doi.org/10.1002/prop.201300001
    Dvali, G. ; Gomez, C. / Black hole's quantum N-portrait. In: Fortschritte der Physik. 2013 ; Vol. 61, No. 7-8. pp. 742-767.
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