Black hole formation and classicalization in ultra-Planckian 2→N scattering

G. Dvali, C. Gomez, R. S. Isermann, D. Lüst, S. Stieberger

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We establish a connection between the ultra-Planckian scattering amplitudes in field and string theory and unitarization by black hole formation in these scattering processes. Using as a guideline an explicit microscopic theory in which the black hole represents a bound-state of many soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, we were able to identify and compute a set of perturbative amplitudes relevant for black hole formation. These are the tree-level N-graviton scattering S-matrix elements in a kinematical regime (called classicalization limit) where the two incoming ultra-Planckian gravitons produce a large number N of soft gravitons. We compute these amplitudes by using the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, as well as scattering equations and string theory techniques. We discover that this limit reveals the key features of the microscopic corpuscular black hole N-portrait. In particular, the perturbative suppression factor of a N-graviton final state, derived from the amplitude, matches the non-perturbative black hole entropy when N reaches the quantum criticality value, whereas final states with different value of N are either suppressed or excluded by non-perturbative corpuscular physics. Thus we identify the microscopic reason behind the black hole dominance over other final states including non-black hole classical object. In the parameterization of the classicalization limit the scattering equations can be solved exactly allowing us to obtain closed expressions for the high-energy limit of the open and closed superstring tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generic number N of external legs. We demonstrate matching and complementarity between the string theory and field theory in different large-. s and large- N regimes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)187-235
    Number of pages49
    JournalNuclear Physics, Section B
    Volume893
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

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    gravitons
    scattering
    string theory
    scattering amplitude
    parameterization
    critical point
    retarding
    entropy
    physics
    matrices
    energy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

    Cite this

    Black hole formation and classicalization in ultra-Planckian 2→N scattering. / Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.; Isermann, R. S.; Lüst, D.; Stieberger, S.

    In: Nuclear Physics, Section B, Vol. 893, 01.04.2015, p. 187-235.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Dvali, G. ; Gomez, C. ; Isermann, R. S. ; Lüst, D. ; Stieberger, S. / Black hole formation and classicalization in ultra-Planckian 2→N scattering. In: Nuclear Physics, Section B. 2015 ; Vol. 893. pp. 187-235.
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