Bio-Protocol Watermarking on Digital Microfluidic Biochips

Mohammed Shayan, Sukanta Bhattacharjee, Jack Tang, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Ramesh Karri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Advancements in digital microfluidic biochip (DMFB) technologies are paving the way for low-cost and automated platforms for implementing bio-protocols. However, the deployment of DMFBs outside of controlled settings will make them vulnerable to intellectual property (IP) theft. Bio-protocol development requires large investments for cross-domain innovations in biochemical analysis, microfluidics, and cyberphysical systems. We propose a watermarking technique for bio-protocol IP protection - a first in microfluidics - that hierarchically embeds a secret signature across these domains. Such a signature can be exclusively attributed to the owner (like a hash). The proposed solution takes into account the inherent variability in domain-specific parameters such as mixing ratio, sensor calibration, and incubation time. We describe watermarking techniques of varying complexities for different bio-protocol steps. These include watermarking for bio-protocol synthesis parameters and the cyberphysical systems control path parameters. A watermarking scheme based on integer linear programming is proposed for the sample-preparation step of a bio-protocol. The practicality of our solution is demonstrated through case studies involving an immunoassay and several mixing ratios required in the sample-preparation process of bio-protocols. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated through various security metrics: proof of ownership score, the probability of successful tampering of the watermark, and the probability of coincidence. We also analyze the integrity of the watermark against various possible attacks: brute force search, the insertion of a new watermark, and the watermarking of more parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8673796
Pages (from-to)2901-2915
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Volume14
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

Fingerprint

Digital microfluidics
Biochips
Watermarking
Intellectual property
Microfluidics
Linear programming
Innovation
Calibration
Control systems
Sensors
Costs

Keywords

  • Intellectual factors
  • microfluidics
  • water-marking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications

Cite this

Bio-Protocol Watermarking on Digital Microfluidic Biochips. / Shayan, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Sukanta; Tang, Jack; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Karri, Ramesh.

In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 14, No. 11, 8673796, 01.11.2019, p. 2901-2915.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shayan, Mohammed ; Bhattacharjee, Sukanta ; Tang, Jack ; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu ; Karri, Ramesh. / Bio-Protocol Watermarking on Digital Microfluidic Biochips. In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 11. pp. 2901-2915.
@article{c2485ac8a22841e3974c6d6ad772b105,
title = "Bio-Protocol Watermarking on Digital Microfluidic Biochips",
abstract = "Advancements in digital microfluidic biochip (DMFB) technologies are paving the way for low-cost and automated platforms for implementing bio-protocols. However, the deployment of DMFBs outside of controlled settings will make them vulnerable to intellectual property (IP) theft. Bio-protocol development requires large investments for cross-domain innovations in biochemical analysis, microfluidics, and cyberphysical systems. We propose a watermarking technique for bio-protocol IP protection - a first in microfluidics - that hierarchically embeds a secret signature across these domains. Such a signature can be exclusively attributed to the owner (like a hash). The proposed solution takes into account the inherent variability in domain-specific parameters such as mixing ratio, sensor calibration, and incubation time. We describe watermarking techniques of varying complexities for different bio-protocol steps. These include watermarking for bio-protocol synthesis parameters and the cyberphysical systems control path parameters. A watermarking scheme based on integer linear programming is proposed for the sample-preparation step of a bio-protocol. The practicality of our solution is demonstrated through case studies involving an immunoassay and several mixing ratios required in the sample-preparation process of bio-protocols. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated through various security metrics: proof of ownership score, the probability of successful tampering of the watermark, and the probability of coincidence. We also analyze the integrity of the watermark against various possible attacks: brute force search, the insertion of a new watermark, and the watermarking of more parameters.",
keywords = "Intellectual factors, microfluidics, water-marking",
author = "Mohammed Shayan and Sukanta Bhattacharjee and Jack Tang and Krishnendu Chakrabarty and Ramesh Karri",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/TIFS.2019.2907185",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "2901--2915",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security",
issn = "1556-6013",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bio-Protocol Watermarking on Digital Microfluidic Biochips

AU - Shayan, Mohammed

AU - Bhattacharjee, Sukanta

AU - Tang, Jack

AU - Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

AU - Karri, Ramesh

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - Advancements in digital microfluidic biochip (DMFB) technologies are paving the way for low-cost and automated platforms for implementing bio-protocols. However, the deployment of DMFBs outside of controlled settings will make them vulnerable to intellectual property (IP) theft. Bio-protocol development requires large investments for cross-domain innovations in biochemical analysis, microfluidics, and cyberphysical systems. We propose a watermarking technique for bio-protocol IP protection - a first in microfluidics - that hierarchically embeds a secret signature across these domains. Such a signature can be exclusively attributed to the owner (like a hash). The proposed solution takes into account the inherent variability in domain-specific parameters such as mixing ratio, sensor calibration, and incubation time. We describe watermarking techniques of varying complexities for different bio-protocol steps. These include watermarking for bio-protocol synthesis parameters and the cyberphysical systems control path parameters. A watermarking scheme based on integer linear programming is proposed for the sample-preparation step of a bio-protocol. The practicality of our solution is demonstrated through case studies involving an immunoassay and several mixing ratios required in the sample-preparation process of bio-protocols. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated through various security metrics: proof of ownership score, the probability of successful tampering of the watermark, and the probability of coincidence. We also analyze the integrity of the watermark against various possible attacks: brute force search, the insertion of a new watermark, and the watermarking of more parameters.

AB - Advancements in digital microfluidic biochip (DMFB) technologies are paving the way for low-cost and automated platforms for implementing bio-protocols. However, the deployment of DMFBs outside of controlled settings will make them vulnerable to intellectual property (IP) theft. Bio-protocol development requires large investments for cross-domain innovations in biochemical analysis, microfluidics, and cyberphysical systems. We propose a watermarking technique for bio-protocol IP protection - a first in microfluidics - that hierarchically embeds a secret signature across these domains. Such a signature can be exclusively attributed to the owner (like a hash). The proposed solution takes into account the inherent variability in domain-specific parameters such as mixing ratio, sensor calibration, and incubation time. We describe watermarking techniques of varying complexities for different bio-protocol steps. These include watermarking for bio-protocol synthesis parameters and the cyberphysical systems control path parameters. A watermarking scheme based on integer linear programming is proposed for the sample-preparation step of a bio-protocol. The practicality of our solution is demonstrated through case studies involving an immunoassay and several mixing ratios required in the sample-preparation process of bio-protocols. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated through various security metrics: proof of ownership score, the probability of successful tampering of the watermark, and the probability of coincidence. We also analyze the integrity of the watermark against various possible attacks: brute force search, the insertion of a new watermark, and the watermarking of more parameters.

KW - Intellectual factors

KW - microfluidics

KW - water-marking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068208752&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85068208752&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2907185

DO - 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2907185

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 2901

EP - 2915

JO - IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security

JF - IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security

SN - 1556-6013

IS - 11

M1 - 8673796

ER -