Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

Danielle C. Ompad, Vijay Nandi, Magdalena Cerdá, Natalie Crawford, Sandro Galea, David Vlahov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods: We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ω h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results: The coefficient α and ω h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ≤$5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions: The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-134
Number of pages8
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume120
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

Fingerprint

Vulnerable Populations
Drug Users
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Economics
Factor analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Linear regression
Reproducibility of Results
Homeless Persons
Poverty
Statistical Factor Analysis
Costs
Linear Models
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • Factor analysis
  • Former drug users
  • Injection drug users
  • Material deprivation
  • Non-injection drug users
  • Poverty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Beyond income : Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods. / Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 120, No. 1-3, 01.01.2012, p. 127-134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ompad, Danielle C. ; Nandi, Vijay ; Cerdá, Magdalena ; Crawford, Natalie ; Galea, Sandro ; Vlahov, David. / Beyond income : Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2012 ; Vol. 120, No. 1-3. pp. 127-134.
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