Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial

Sarah Cha, Bahar Erar, Raymond Niaura, Amanda L. Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: A total of 5290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012 and January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants, and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012–2014 waves of NHIS (n = 19,043) and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n = 3664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Results: Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, and daily smokers and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25–0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated, while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Conclusions: Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. ClinicalTrials.gov: #NCT01544153

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)751-761
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume50
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

Smoking Cessation
Health Surveys
Internet
Interviews
Smoking
Education
Withholding Treatment
Selection Bias
Motivation
Multivariate Analysis
Randomized Controlled Trials
Demography

Keywords

  • Internet
  • Research design
  • Smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial. / Cha, Sarah; Erar, Bahar; Niaura, Raymond; Graham, Amanda L.

In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 5, 01.10.2016, p. 751-761.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{cf68c0865f0d45adb68a2f4045581778,
title = "Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial",
abstract = "Background: The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: A total of 5290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012 and January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants, and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012–2014 waves of NHIS (n = 19,043) and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n = 3664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Results: Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, and daily smokers and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25–0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated, while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Conclusions: Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. ClinicalTrials.gov: #NCT01544153",
keywords = "Internet, Research design, Smoking cessation",
author = "Sarah Cha and Bahar Erar and Raymond Niaura and Graham, {Amanda L.}",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12160-016-9804-x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "50",
pages = "751--761",
journal = "Annals of Behavioral Medicine",
issn = "0883-6612",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial

AU - Cha, Sarah

AU - Erar, Bahar

AU - Niaura, Raymond

AU - Graham, Amanda L.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - Background: The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: A total of 5290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012 and January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants, and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012–2014 waves of NHIS (n = 19,043) and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n = 3664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Results: Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, and daily smokers and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25–0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated, while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Conclusions: Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. ClinicalTrials.gov: #NCT01544153

AB - Background: The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: A total of 5290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012 and January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants, and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012–2014 waves of NHIS (n = 19,043) and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n = 3664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Results: Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, and daily smokers and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25–0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated, while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Conclusions: Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. ClinicalTrials.gov: #NCT01544153

KW - Internet

KW - Research design

KW - Smoking cessation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84973655833&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84973655833&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s12160-016-9804-x

DO - 10.1007/s12160-016-9804-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 27283295

AN - SCOPUS:84973655833

VL - 50

SP - 751

EP - 761

JO - Annals of Behavioral Medicine

JF - Annals of Behavioral Medicine

SN - 0883-6612

IS - 5

ER -