Back to work? Not everyone. Examining the longitudinal relationships between informal caregiving and paid work after formal retirement

Ernest Gonzales, Yeonjung Lee, Celeste Brown

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Objectives: Research on unretirement (retirees who re-enter the workforce) is burgeoning. However, no longitudinal study has examined how informal care relates to unretirement. Utilizing role theory, this study aims to explore the heterogeneity of informal care responsibilities in retirement and to examine how informal care informs re-entering the workforce in later life. Method: Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired individuals aged 62 years and older in 1998 (n = 8,334) and followed to 2008. Informal care responsibilities included helping a spouse/partner with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); helping parent(s) or parent-in-law(s) with ADLs or IADLs; and single or co-occurrence of care roles. Covariates included economic and social factors. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized. Results: When compared with noncaregivers, helping a spouse with ADLs or IADLs reduced the odds of returning-to-work in the subsequent wave by 78% and 55%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.87; HR: 0.45, CI: 0.21-0.97). There was no statistical difference to returning-to-work between noncaregivers and helping parents with ADLs/IADLs or multiple caregiving responsibilities. Discussion: Role theory provided a useful framework to understand the relationships of informal care and unretirement. Aspects of role strain emerged, where, spousal caregivers were less likely to come out of retirement. Spousal caregivers may face challenges to working longer, and subsequently, opportunities to bolster their retirement security are diminished. Research and policy implications are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)532-539
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
    Volume72
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

    Fingerprint

    Return to Work
    Retirement
    caregiving
    Activities of Daily Living
    retirement
    Patient Care
    role theory
    parents
    spouse
    responsibility
    caregiver
    Spouses
    Caregivers
    confidence
    Confidence Intervals
    retiree
    economic factors
    social factors
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Research

    Keywords

    • Employment
    • Informal caregiving
    • Role theory
    • Unretirement

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health(social science)
    • Sociology and Political Science
    • Life-span and Life-course Studies

    Cite this

    Back to work? Not everyone. Examining the longitudinal relationships between informal caregiving and paid work after formal retirement. / Gonzales, Ernest; Lee, Yeonjung; Brown, Celeste.

    In: Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 72, No. 3, 01.01.2017, p. 532-539.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    @article{fd06b7715dec403e99745ed80000764f,
    title = "Back to work? Not everyone. Examining the longitudinal relationships between informal caregiving and paid work after formal retirement",
    abstract = "Objectives: Research on unretirement (retirees who re-enter the workforce) is burgeoning. However, no longitudinal study has examined how informal care relates to unretirement. Utilizing role theory, this study aims to explore the heterogeneity of informal care responsibilities in retirement and to examine how informal care informs re-entering the workforce in later life. Method: Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired individuals aged 62 years and older in 1998 (n = 8,334) and followed to 2008. Informal care responsibilities included helping a spouse/partner with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); helping parent(s) or parent-in-law(s) with ADLs or IADLs; and single or co-occurrence of care roles. Covariates included economic and social factors. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized. Results: When compared with noncaregivers, helping a spouse with ADLs or IADLs reduced the odds of returning-to-work in the subsequent wave by 78{\%} and 55{\%}, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.87; HR: 0.45, CI: 0.21-0.97). There was no statistical difference to returning-to-work between noncaregivers and helping parents with ADLs/IADLs or multiple caregiving responsibilities. Discussion: Role theory provided a useful framework to understand the relationships of informal care and unretirement. Aspects of role strain emerged, where, spousal caregivers were less likely to come out of retirement. Spousal caregivers may face challenges to working longer, and subsequently, opportunities to bolster their retirement security are diminished. Research and policy implications are discussed.",
    keywords = "Employment, Informal caregiving, Role theory, Unretirement",
    author = "Ernest Gonzales and Yeonjung Lee and Celeste Brown",
    year = "2017",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1093/geronb/gbv095",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "72",
    pages = "532--539",
    journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences",
    issn = "1079-5014",
    publisher = "Gerontological Society of America",
    number = "3",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Back to work? Not everyone. Examining the longitudinal relationships between informal caregiving and paid work after formal retirement

    AU - Gonzales, Ernest

    AU - Lee, Yeonjung

    AU - Brown, Celeste

    PY - 2017/1/1

    Y1 - 2017/1/1

    N2 - Objectives: Research on unretirement (retirees who re-enter the workforce) is burgeoning. However, no longitudinal study has examined how informal care relates to unretirement. Utilizing role theory, this study aims to explore the heterogeneity of informal care responsibilities in retirement and to examine how informal care informs re-entering the workforce in later life. Method: Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired individuals aged 62 years and older in 1998 (n = 8,334) and followed to 2008. Informal care responsibilities included helping a spouse/partner with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); helping parent(s) or parent-in-law(s) with ADLs or IADLs; and single or co-occurrence of care roles. Covariates included economic and social factors. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized. Results: When compared with noncaregivers, helping a spouse with ADLs or IADLs reduced the odds of returning-to-work in the subsequent wave by 78% and 55%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.87; HR: 0.45, CI: 0.21-0.97). There was no statistical difference to returning-to-work between noncaregivers and helping parents with ADLs/IADLs or multiple caregiving responsibilities. Discussion: Role theory provided a useful framework to understand the relationships of informal care and unretirement. Aspects of role strain emerged, where, spousal caregivers were less likely to come out of retirement. Spousal caregivers may face challenges to working longer, and subsequently, opportunities to bolster their retirement security are diminished. Research and policy implications are discussed.

    AB - Objectives: Research on unretirement (retirees who re-enter the workforce) is burgeoning. However, no longitudinal study has examined how informal care relates to unretirement. Utilizing role theory, this study aims to explore the heterogeneity of informal care responsibilities in retirement and to examine how informal care informs re-entering the workforce in later life. Method: Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired individuals aged 62 years and older in 1998 (n = 8,334) and followed to 2008. Informal care responsibilities included helping a spouse/partner with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); helping parent(s) or parent-in-law(s) with ADLs or IADLs; and single or co-occurrence of care roles. Covariates included economic and social factors. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized. Results: When compared with noncaregivers, helping a spouse with ADLs or IADLs reduced the odds of returning-to-work in the subsequent wave by 78% and 55%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.87; HR: 0.45, CI: 0.21-0.97). There was no statistical difference to returning-to-work between noncaregivers and helping parents with ADLs/IADLs or multiple caregiving responsibilities. Discussion: Role theory provided a useful framework to understand the relationships of informal care and unretirement. Aspects of role strain emerged, where, spousal caregivers were less likely to come out of retirement. Spousal caregivers may face challenges to working longer, and subsequently, opportunities to bolster their retirement security are diminished. Research and policy implications are discussed.

    KW - Employment

    KW - Informal caregiving

    KW - Role theory

    KW - Unretirement

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019682675&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019682675&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1093/geronb/gbv095

    DO - 10.1093/geronb/gbv095

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 26503451

    AN - SCOPUS:85019682675

    VL - 72

    SP - 532

    EP - 539

    JO - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

    JF - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

    SN - 1079-5014

    IS - 3

    ER -