Studies suggest inverse associations between obesity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, there is little evidence whether factors related to obesity, including lifestyle (diet and physical activity) and physiologic factors (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome), influence PSA. We used dietary, physical activity, and serum PSA, insulin, glucose, and lipid data for men >40 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2004; N = 2,548). Energy, fat, and carbohydrate intakes were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall. Men were considered as having metabolic syndrome based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Leisure-time physical activity and doctor-diagnosed hypertension were self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from measured weight and height. We computed the geometric mean PSA (ng/mL), adjusted for age, race, and body mass index, by tertile of energy, fat, and carbohydrate intake and level of physical activity, and among men with and without insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in the whole population and by race. The geometric mean PSA (95% confidence interval) among men in the lowest tertile of energy was 1.05 (0.97-1.1) relative to 0.85 (0.8-0.9) in the highest tertile (P = 0.0002) in the whole population. The PSA concentrations were lower among overweight men with higher versus lower energy intake (P = 0.001). The PSA concentrations in men with insulin resistance was lower [0.87 (0.8-0.9)] relative to men without insulin resistance [0.98 (0.9-1.1)] at P = 0.04. All associations were in similar directions within racial subgroups. No associations were observed between the other lifestyle and physiologic factors. Additional studies are required to confirm these results and to investigate the potential mechanisms that may explain these relationships.
ASJC Scopus subject areas