Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years

J. Blustein, T. Attina, M. Liu, A. M. Ryan, L. M. Cox, M. J. Blaser, L. Trasande

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence.Design:Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age.Setting and participants: Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219).Outcome measures:Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Results: Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95% confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak. Conclusion: Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)900-906
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume37
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Fingerprint

Adiposity
Confidence Intervals
Body Mass Index
Mothers
Weights and Measures
Birth Weight
Cesarean Section
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parturition
Feeding Behavior
Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies
Obesity
Parents
Body Weight
Pregnancy
Research

Keywords

  • Adiposity
  • ALSPAC
  • Caesarean delivery
  • Childhood obesity
  • Microbiome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years. / Blustein, J.; Attina, T.; Liu, M.; Ryan, A. M.; Cox, L. M.; Blaser, M. J.; Trasande, L.

In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 37, No. 7, 07.2013, p. 900-906.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blustein, J. ; Attina, T. ; Liu, M. ; Ryan, A. M. ; Cox, L. M. ; Blaser, M. J. ; Trasande, L. / Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years. In: International Journal of Obesity. 2013 ; Vol. 37, No. 7. pp. 900-906.
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abstract = "Objectives: To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence.Design:Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age.Setting and participants: Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219).Outcome measures:Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Results: Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06{\%}) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95{\%} confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95{\%} CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95{\%} CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95{\%} CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak. Conclusion: Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.",
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N2 - Objectives: To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence.Design:Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age.Setting and participants: Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219).Outcome measures:Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Results: Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95% confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak. Conclusion: Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.

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