Application of Capacitive Deionisation in water desalination: A review

Faisal A. AlMarzooqi, Amal A. Al Ghaferi, Irfan Saadat, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

This manuscript spans over 180. years of ideas, discoveries, inventions, breakthroughs and research in Capacitive Deionisation (CDI) and Membrane CDI (MCDI) desalination. Starting with the first discovery of the dissociation of ions in solution under an electric field by M. Faraday (1833), through the pioneering work of carbon aerogel flow through capacitors by J. Farmer's group (1996) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to the utilization of novel graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials as electrodes, the CDI and MCDI technologies are progressively making its path to the desalination industry. Through this review various deficiencies of this technology have been identified, first and far most was the need for low cost and efficient electrode materials. The review identified that a low cost and high efficiency electrode capable of processing high salinity (seawater) stream still does not exists and is considered important if the technology is to make it to the industry. Furthermore, the lack of long term reliability, operation demonstrations and experience meant that information about scaling and fouling are rather scarce. Taking a step further, no comprehensive environmental assessment such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been performed yet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-15
Number of pages13
JournalDesalination
Volume342
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2 2014

Fingerprint

Desalination
electrode
desalination
Electrodes
Water
membrane
Membrane technology
Carbon Nanotubes
Aerogels
Graphite
industry
Environmental impact assessments
Patents and inventions
environmental impact assessment
environmental assessment
Fouling
Seawater
cost
fouling
Graphene

Keywords

  • Capacitive Deionisation
  • Desalination
  • Membrane Capacitive Deionisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Application of Capacitive Deionisation in water desalination : A review. / AlMarzooqi, Faisal A.; Al Ghaferi, Amal A.; Saadat, Irfan; Hilal, Nidal.

In: Desalination, Vol. 342, 02.06.2014, p. 3-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

AlMarzooqi, Faisal A. ; Al Ghaferi, Amal A. ; Saadat, Irfan ; Hilal, Nidal. / Application of Capacitive Deionisation in water desalination : A review. In: Desalination. 2014 ; Vol. 342. pp. 3-15.
@article{68dd82761c9e4157bda968bd9fc33467,
title = "Application of Capacitive Deionisation in water desalination: A review",
abstract = "This manuscript spans over 180. years of ideas, discoveries, inventions, breakthroughs and research in Capacitive Deionisation (CDI) and Membrane CDI (MCDI) desalination. Starting with the first discovery of the dissociation of ions in solution under an electric field by M. Faraday (1833), through the pioneering work of carbon aerogel flow through capacitors by J. Farmer's group (1996) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to the utilization of novel graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials as electrodes, the CDI and MCDI technologies are progressively making its path to the desalination industry. Through this review various deficiencies of this technology have been identified, first and far most was the need for low cost and efficient electrode materials. The review identified that a low cost and high efficiency electrode capable of processing high salinity (seawater) stream still does not exists and is considered important if the technology is to make it to the industry. Furthermore, the lack of long term reliability, operation demonstrations and experience meant that information about scaling and fouling are rather scarce. Taking a step further, no comprehensive environmental assessment such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been performed yet.",
keywords = "Capacitive Deionisation, Desalination, Membrane Capacitive Deionisation",
author = "AlMarzooqi, {Faisal A.} and {Al Ghaferi}, {Amal A.} and Irfan Saadat and Nidal Hilal",
year = "2014",
month = "6",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.desal.2014.02.031",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "342",
pages = "3--15",
journal = "Desalination",
issn = "0011-9164",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Application of Capacitive Deionisation in water desalination

T2 - A review

AU - AlMarzooqi, Faisal A.

AU - Al Ghaferi, Amal A.

AU - Saadat, Irfan

AU - Hilal, Nidal

PY - 2014/6/2

Y1 - 2014/6/2

N2 - This manuscript spans over 180. years of ideas, discoveries, inventions, breakthroughs and research in Capacitive Deionisation (CDI) and Membrane CDI (MCDI) desalination. Starting with the first discovery of the dissociation of ions in solution under an electric field by M. Faraday (1833), through the pioneering work of carbon aerogel flow through capacitors by J. Farmer's group (1996) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to the utilization of novel graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials as electrodes, the CDI and MCDI technologies are progressively making its path to the desalination industry. Through this review various deficiencies of this technology have been identified, first and far most was the need for low cost and efficient electrode materials. The review identified that a low cost and high efficiency electrode capable of processing high salinity (seawater) stream still does not exists and is considered important if the technology is to make it to the industry. Furthermore, the lack of long term reliability, operation demonstrations and experience meant that information about scaling and fouling are rather scarce. Taking a step further, no comprehensive environmental assessment such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been performed yet.

AB - This manuscript spans over 180. years of ideas, discoveries, inventions, breakthroughs and research in Capacitive Deionisation (CDI) and Membrane CDI (MCDI) desalination. Starting with the first discovery of the dissociation of ions in solution under an electric field by M. Faraday (1833), through the pioneering work of carbon aerogel flow through capacitors by J. Farmer's group (1996) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to the utilization of novel graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials as electrodes, the CDI and MCDI technologies are progressively making its path to the desalination industry. Through this review various deficiencies of this technology have been identified, first and far most was the need for low cost and efficient electrode materials. The review identified that a low cost and high efficiency electrode capable of processing high salinity (seawater) stream still does not exists and is considered important if the technology is to make it to the industry. Furthermore, the lack of long term reliability, operation demonstrations and experience meant that information about scaling and fouling are rather scarce. Taking a step further, no comprehensive environmental assessment such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been performed yet.

KW - Capacitive Deionisation

KW - Desalination

KW - Membrane Capacitive Deionisation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84897958320&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84897958320&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.desal.2014.02.031

DO - 10.1016/j.desal.2014.02.031

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:84897958320

VL - 342

SP - 3

EP - 15

JO - Desalination

JF - Desalination

SN - 0011-9164

ER -