Analyzing gene regulation in ascidian embryos

New tools for new perspectives

Anna Di Gregorio, Michael Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ascidians are marine protochordates at the evolutionary boundary between invertebrates and vertebrates. Ascidian larvae provide a simple system for unraveling gene regulation networks underlying the formation of the basic chordate body plan. After being used for over a century as a model for embryological studies, ascidians have become, in the past decade, an increasingly popular organism for studying gene regulation. Part of the renewed appeal of this system is the use of electroporation to introduce transgenic DNAs into developing embryos. This method is considerably more efficient than conventional microinjection assays and permits the simultaneous transformation of hundreds of embryos. Electroporation has allowed the identification and characterization of cis-regulatory DNAs that mediate gene expression in a variety of tissues, including the notochord, tail muscles, CNS, and endoderm. Electroporation has also provided a simple method for mis-expressing patterning genes and producing dominant mutant phenotypes. Recent studies have used electroporation to create "knock-out" phenotypes by over-expressing dominant negative forms of particular proteins. Here we review the past and present uses of electroporation in ascidian development, and speculate on potential future uses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-139
Number of pages8
JournalDifferentiation
Volume70
Issue number4-5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2002

Fingerprint

Urochordata
Electroporation
Embryonic Structures
Genes
Chordata
Notochord
Phenotype
Dominant Genes
Endoderm
Gene Regulatory Networks
DNA
Microinjections
Invertebrates
Larva
Vertebrates
Tail
Gene Expression
Muscles
Proteins

Keywords

  • Ascidian
  • Body plan
  • Electroporation
  • Gene regulation
  • Transgenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Analyzing gene regulation in ascidian embryos : New tools for new perspectives. / Di Gregorio, Anna; Levine, Michael.

In: Differentiation, Vol. 70, No. 4-5, 06.2002, p. 132-139.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8a1047bcf2be42bfbacac1308ba181b1,
title = "Analyzing gene regulation in ascidian embryos: New tools for new perspectives",
abstract = "Ascidians are marine protochordates at the evolutionary boundary between invertebrates and vertebrates. Ascidian larvae provide a simple system for unraveling gene regulation networks underlying the formation of the basic chordate body plan. After being used for over a century as a model for embryological studies, ascidians have become, in the past decade, an increasingly popular organism for studying gene regulation. Part of the renewed appeal of this system is the use of electroporation to introduce transgenic DNAs into developing embryos. This method is considerably more efficient than conventional microinjection assays and permits the simultaneous transformation of hundreds of embryos. Electroporation has allowed the identification and characterization of cis-regulatory DNAs that mediate gene expression in a variety of tissues, including the notochord, tail muscles, CNS, and endoderm. Electroporation has also provided a simple method for mis-expressing patterning genes and producing dominant mutant phenotypes. Recent studies have used electroporation to create {"}knock-out{"} phenotypes by over-expressing dominant negative forms of particular proteins. Here we review the past and present uses of electroporation in ascidian development, and speculate on potential future uses.",
keywords = "Ascidian, Body plan, Electroporation, Gene regulation, Transgenesis",
author = "{Di Gregorio}, Anna and Michael Levine",
year = "2002",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700402.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "70",
pages = "132--139",
journal = "Differentiation",
issn = "0301-4681",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "4-5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analyzing gene regulation in ascidian embryos

T2 - New tools for new perspectives

AU - Di Gregorio, Anna

AU - Levine, Michael

PY - 2002/6

Y1 - 2002/6

N2 - Ascidians are marine protochordates at the evolutionary boundary between invertebrates and vertebrates. Ascidian larvae provide a simple system for unraveling gene regulation networks underlying the formation of the basic chordate body plan. After being used for over a century as a model for embryological studies, ascidians have become, in the past decade, an increasingly popular organism for studying gene regulation. Part of the renewed appeal of this system is the use of electroporation to introduce transgenic DNAs into developing embryos. This method is considerably more efficient than conventional microinjection assays and permits the simultaneous transformation of hundreds of embryos. Electroporation has allowed the identification and characterization of cis-regulatory DNAs that mediate gene expression in a variety of tissues, including the notochord, tail muscles, CNS, and endoderm. Electroporation has also provided a simple method for mis-expressing patterning genes and producing dominant mutant phenotypes. Recent studies have used electroporation to create "knock-out" phenotypes by over-expressing dominant negative forms of particular proteins. Here we review the past and present uses of electroporation in ascidian development, and speculate on potential future uses.

AB - Ascidians are marine protochordates at the evolutionary boundary between invertebrates and vertebrates. Ascidian larvae provide a simple system for unraveling gene regulation networks underlying the formation of the basic chordate body plan. After being used for over a century as a model for embryological studies, ascidians have become, in the past decade, an increasingly popular organism for studying gene regulation. Part of the renewed appeal of this system is the use of electroporation to introduce transgenic DNAs into developing embryos. This method is considerably more efficient than conventional microinjection assays and permits the simultaneous transformation of hundreds of embryos. Electroporation has allowed the identification and characterization of cis-regulatory DNAs that mediate gene expression in a variety of tissues, including the notochord, tail muscles, CNS, and endoderm. Electroporation has also provided a simple method for mis-expressing patterning genes and producing dominant mutant phenotypes. Recent studies have used electroporation to create "knock-out" phenotypes by over-expressing dominant negative forms of particular proteins. Here we review the past and present uses of electroporation in ascidian development, and speculate on potential future uses.

KW - Ascidian

KW - Body plan

KW - Electroporation

KW - Gene regulation

KW - Transgenesis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036594371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036594371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700402.x

DO - 10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700402.x

M3 - Article

VL - 70

SP - 132

EP - 139

JO - Differentiation

JF - Differentiation

SN - 0301-4681

IS - 4-5

ER -