An additive dripping technique using diphenyl ether fortuning perovskite crystallization for high-efficiency solar cells

Di Huang, Tenghooi Goh, Yifan Zheng, Zilun Qin, Jiao Zhao, Suling Zhao, Zheng Xu, Andre Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Controlling the morphology of the MAPbI3−xClx active layer has remained a challenge towards advancing perovskite solar cells (PvSCs). Here, we demonstrate that a low temperature additive dripping (AD) treatment step, using diphenyl ether (DPE), can significantly improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE), compared to the control device using chlorobenzene (CB), by 15% up to 16.64%, with a high current density (JSC) of 22.67 mA/cm2. We chose DPE for its small and appropriate dipole moment to adjust the solubility of the MAPbI3−xClx precursor during the formation of the intermediate phase and the MAPbI3−xClx phase. The low DPE vapor pressure provides a longer processing window for the removal of residual dimethylformamide (DMF), during the annealing process, for improved perovskite formation. Imaging and X-ray analysis both reveal that the MAPbI3−xClx film exhibits enlarged grains with increased crystallinity. Together, these improvements result in reduced carrier recombination and hole trap-state density in the MAPbI3−xClx film, while minimizing the hysteresis problem typical of PvSCs. These results show thatthe AD approach is a promising technique for improving PvSCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalNano Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Dec 20 2017



  • additive dripping
  • crystallinity
  • DPE
  • perovskite solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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