Active CMOS sensor array for electrochemical biomolecular detection

Peter M. Levine, Ping Gong, Rastislav Levicky, Kenneth L. Shepard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Electrochemical sensing of biomolecules eliminates the need for the bulky and expensive optical instrumentation required in traditional fluorescence-based sensing assays. Integration of the sensor interface electrodes and active electrochemical detection circuitry on a CMOS substrate miniaturizes the sensing platform, enhancing its portability for use in point-of-care applications, while enabling the high-throughput, highly parallel analysis characteristic of traditional microarrays. This paper describes the design of a four-by-four active sensor array for multiplexed electrochemical biomolecular detection in a standard 0.25- μm CMOS process. Integrated potentiostats, comprised of control amplifiers and dual-slope analog-to-digital converters, stimulate the electrochemical cell and detect the current flowing through the on-chip gold electrodes at each sensor site that results from biomolecular reactions occurring on the chip surface. Post-processing steps needed to fabricate a biologically-compatible surface-electrode array in CMOS that can withstand operation in a harsh electrochemical environment are also described. Experimental results demonstrating the proper operation of the active CMOS array for biomolecular detection include cyclic voltammetry of a reversible redox species, DNA probe density characterization, as well as quantitative and specific DNA hybridization detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1859-1871
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume43
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2008

Fingerprint

Sensor arrays
Electrodes
DNA
Electrochemical cells
Sensors
Biomolecules
Digital to analog conversion
Microarrays
Cyclic voltammetry
Assays
Gold
Fluorescence
Throughput
Substrates
Processing

Keywords

  • Biosensor
  • Cyclic voltammetry
  • DNA
  • Electrochemical sensor
  • Microelectrode
  • Potentiostat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Active CMOS sensor array for electrochemical biomolecular detection. / Levine, Peter M.; Gong, Ping; Levicky, Rastislav; Shepard, Kenneth L.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 43, No. 8, 08.2008, p. 1859-1871.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Levine, Peter M. ; Gong, Ping ; Levicky, Rastislav ; Shepard, Kenneth L. / Active CMOS sensor array for electrochemical biomolecular detection. In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2008 ; Vol. 43, No. 8. pp. 1859-1871.
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