A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes

A. M. Soderberg, E. Nakar, S. B. Cenko, P. B. Cameron, D. A. Frail, S. R. Kulkarni, D. B. Fox, E. Berger, A. Gal-Yam, D. S. Moon, P. A. Price, G. Anderson, B. P. Schmidt, M. Salvo, J. Rich, A. Rau, E. O. Ofek, R. A. Chevalier, M. Hamuy, F. A. HarrisonP. Kumar, A. MacFadyen, P. J. McCarthy, H. S. Park, B. A. Peterson, M. M. Phillips, M. Rauch, M. Roth, S. Shectman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We present detailed optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the X-ray flash XRF 050416a obtained with Palomar and Siding Springs Observatories, as well as the HST and VLA, placing this event among the best-studied X-ray flashes to date. In addition, we present an optical spectrum from Keck LRIS from which we measure the redshift of the burst, z = 0.6528. At this redshift the isotropic-equivalent prompt energy release was about 1051 ergs, and using a standard afterglow synchrotron model, we find that the blast wave kinetic energy is a factor of 10 larger, EK,iso, ≈ 1052 ergs. The lack of an observed jet break to t ∼ 20 days indicates that the opening angle is θj ≳ 7° and the total beaming-corrected relativistic energy is ≳ 1050 ergs. We further show that the burst produced a strong radio flare at t ∼ 40 days accompanied by an observed flattening in the X-ray band, which we attribute to an abrupt circumburst density jump or an episode of energy injection (from either a refreshed shock or off-axis ejecta). Late-time observations with HST show evidence for an associated supernova with peak optical luminosity roughly comparable to that of SN 1998bw. Next, we show that the host galaxy of XRF 050416a is actively forming stars at a rate of at least 2 M yr-1 with a luminosity of LB ≈ 0.5L* and metallicity of Z ∼ 0.2-0.8 Z. Finally, we discuss the nature of XRF 050416a in the context of short-hard GRBs and under the framework of off-axis and dirty fireball models for X-ray flashes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)982-994
    Number of pages13
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume661
    Issue number2 I
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

    Fingerprint

    X-ray fluorescence
    flares
    flash
    erg
    radio
    bursts
    x rays
    luminosity
    energy
    fireballs
    radio observation
    flattening
    blasts
    ejecta
    wave energy
    afterglows
    kinetic energy
    metallicity
    supernovae
    optical spectrum

    Keywords

    • Gamma rays: bursts

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Soderberg, A. M., Nakar, E., Cenko, S. B., Cameron, P. B., Frail, D. A., Kulkarni, S. R., ... Shectman, S. (2007). A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes. Astrophysical Journal, 661(2 I), 982-994. https://doi.org/10.1086/515562

    A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes. / Soderberg, A. M.; Nakar, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Cameron, P. B.; Frail, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Fox, D. B.; Berger, E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Moon, D. S.; Price, P. A.; Anderson, G.; Schmidt, B. P.; Salvo, M.; Rich, J.; Rau, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Chevalier, R. A.; Hamuy, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Kumar, P.; MacFadyen, A.; McCarthy, P. J.; Park, H. S.; Peterson, B. A.; Phillips, M. M.; Rauch, M.; Roth, M.; Shectman, S.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 661, No. 2 I, 01.06.2007, p. 982-994.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Soderberg, AM, Nakar, E, Cenko, SB, Cameron, PB, Frail, DA, Kulkarni, SR, Fox, DB, Berger, E, Gal-Yam, A, Moon, DS, Price, PA, Anderson, G, Schmidt, BP, Salvo, M, Rich, J, Rau, A, Ofek, EO, Chevalier, RA, Hamuy, M, Harrison, FA, Kumar, P, MacFadyen, A, McCarthy, PJ, Park, HS, Peterson, BA, Phillips, MM, Rauch, M, Roth, M & Shectman, S 2007, 'A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 661, no. 2 I, pp. 982-994. https://doi.org/10.1086/515562
    Soderberg AM, Nakar E, Cenko SB, Cameron PB, Frail DA, Kulkarni SR et al. A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes. Astrophysical Journal. 2007 Jun 1;661(2 I):982-994. https://doi.org/10.1086/515562
    Soderberg, A. M. ; Nakar, E. ; Cenko, S. B. ; Cameron, P. B. ; Frail, D. A. ; Kulkarni, S. R. ; Fox, D. B. ; Berger, E. ; Gal-Yam, A. ; Moon, D. S. ; Price, P. A. ; Anderson, G. ; Schmidt, B. P. ; Salvo, M. ; Rich, J. ; Rau, A. ; Ofek, E. O. ; Chevalier, R. A. ; Hamuy, M. ; Harrison, F. A. ; Kumar, P. ; MacFadyen, A. ; McCarthy, P. J. ; Park, H. S. ; Peterson, B. A. ; Phillips, M. M. ; Rauch, M. ; Roth, M. ; Shectman, S. / A spectacular radio flare from XRF 050416a at 40 days and implications for the nature of X-ray flashes. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2007 ; Vol. 661, No. 2 I. pp. 982-994.
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    AU - Soderberg, A. M.

    AU - Nakar, E.

    AU - Cenko, S. B.

    AU - Cameron, P. B.

    AU - Frail, D. A.

    AU - Kulkarni, S. R.

    AU - Fox, D. B.

    AU - Berger, E.

    AU - Gal-Yam, A.

    AU - Moon, D. S.

    AU - Price, P. A.

    AU - Anderson, G.

    AU - Schmidt, B. P.

    AU - Salvo, M.

    AU - Rich, J.

    AU - Rau, A.

    AU - Ofek, E. O.

    AU - Chevalier, R. A.

    AU - Hamuy, M.

    AU - Harrison, F. A.

    AU - Kumar, P.

    AU - MacFadyen, A.

    AU - McCarthy, P. J.

    AU - Park, H. S.

    AU - Peterson, B. A.

    AU - Phillips, M. M.

    AU - Rauch, M.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Shectman, S.

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