A practical map labeling algorithm utilizing morphological image processing and force-directed methods

Georg Stadler, Tibor Steiner, Jürgen Beiglböck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Automatic placement of text corresponding to graphical objects is an important issue in several applications such as geographical information systems (GIS), cartography, and graph drawing. We focus on realistic data and present a hybrid algorithm for labeling both line and point features. The first step of the method works on the discretized map and uses tools from morphological image processing. It leads to an initial placement of all labels in allowed (i.e., non-overlapping) position. The second step works on the continuous map and uses a force-directed iterative algorithm to improve this initial placement. In a comprehensive study on realistic data sets the strengths of the method (e.g., its flexibility and simple implementation) as well as its limitations (e.g., on dense maps the force-based method is only capable of small adjustments) are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-215
Number of pages9
JournalCartography and Geographic Information Science
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2006

Fingerprint

image processing
Labeling
Image processing
Drawing (graphics)
tool use
cartography
Labels
Geographical Information System
Information systems
flexibility
GIS
labelling
method
Placement
Geographical information system
Hybrid algorithm
Graph

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management of Technology and Innovation
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development

Cite this

A practical map labeling algorithm utilizing morphological image processing and force-directed methods. / Stadler, Georg; Steiner, Tibor; Beiglböck, Jürgen.

In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Vol. 33, No. 3, 07.2006, p. 207-215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{44d1374f57f945249c407bcfada1d440,
title = "A practical map labeling algorithm utilizing morphological image processing and force-directed methods",
abstract = "Automatic placement of text corresponding to graphical objects is an important issue in several applications such as geographical information systems (GIS), cartography, and graph drawing. We focus on realistic data and present a hybrid algorithm for labeling both line and point features. The first step of the method works on the discretized map and uses tools from morphological image processing. It leads to an initial placement of all labels in allowed (i.e., non-overlapping) position. The second step works on the continuous map and uses a force-directed iterative algorithm to improve this initial placement. In a comprehensive study on realistic data sets the strengths of the method (e.g., its flexibility and simple implementation) as well as its limitations (e.g., on dense maps the force-based method is only capable of small adjustments) are discussed.",
author = "Georg Stadler and Tibor Steiner and J{\"u}rgen Beiglb{\"o}ck",
year = "2006",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1559/152304006779077327",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "207--215",
journal = "Cartography and Geographic Information Science",
issn = "1523-0406",
publisher = "American Congress on Surveying and Mapping",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A practical map labeling algorithm utilizing morphological image processing and force-directed methods

AU - Stadler, Georg

AU - Steiner, Tibor

AU - Beiglböck, Jürgen

PY - 2006/7

Y1 - 2006/7

N2 - Automatic placement of text corresponding to graphical objects is an important issue in several applications such as geographical information systems (GIS), cartography, and graph drawing. We focus on realistic data and present a hybrid algorithm for labeling both line and point features. The first step of the method works on the discretized map and uses tools from morphological image processing. It leads to an initial placement of all labels in allowed (i.e., non-overlapping) position. The second step works on the continuous map and uses a force-directed iterative algorithm to improve this initial placement. In a comprehensive study on realistic data sets the strengths of the method (e.g., its flexibility and simple implementation) as well as its limitations (e.g., on dense maps the force-based method is only capable of small adjustments) are discussed.

AB - Automatic placement of text corresponding to graphical objects is an important issue in several applications such as geographical information systems (GIS), cartography, and graph drawing. We focus on realistic data and present a hybrid algorithm for labeling both line and point features. The first step of the method works on the discretized map and uses tools from morphological image processing. It leads to an initial placement of all labels in allowed (i.e., non-overlapping) position. The second step works on the continuous map and uses a force-directed iterative algorithm to improve this initial placement. In a comprehensive study on realistic data sets the strengths of the method (e.g., its flexibility and simple implementation) as well as its limitations (e.g., on dense maps the force-based method is only capable of small adjustments) are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33846029185&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33846029185&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1559/152304006779077327

DO - 10.1559/152304006779077327

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 207

EP - 215

JO - Cartography and Geographic Information Science

JF - Cartography and Geographic Information Science

SN - 1523-0406

IS - 3

ER -