A Modern Approach to IP Protection and Trojan Prevention: Split Manufacturing for 3D ICs and Obfuscation of Vertical Interconnects

Satwik Patnaik, Mohammed Ashraf, Ozgur Sinanoglu, Johann Knechtel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Split manufacturing (SM) and layout camouflaging (LC) are two promising techniques to obscure integrated circuits (ICs) from malicious entities during and after manufacturing. While both techniques enable protecting the intellectual property (IP) of ICs, SM can further mitigate the insertion of hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we strive for the "best of both worlds," that is we seek to combine the individual strengths of SM and LC. By jointly extending SM and LC techniques toward 3D integration, an up-and-coming paradigm based on stacking and interconnecting of multiple chips, we establish a modern approach to hardware security. Toward that end, we develop a security-driven CAD and manufacturing flow for 3D ICs in two variations, one for IP protection and one for HT prevention. Essential concepts of that flow are (i) "3D splitting" of the netlist to protect, (ii) obfuscation of the vertical interconnects (i.e., the wiring between stacked chips), and (iii) for HT prevention, a security-driven synthesis stage. We conduct comprehensive experiments on DRC-clean layouts of multi-million-gate DARPA and OpenCores designs (and others). Strengthened by extensive security analysis for both IP protection and HT prevention, we argue that entering the third dimension is eminent for effective and efficient hardware security.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Intellectual property
Hardware
Integrated circuits
Electric wiring
Three dimensional integrated circuits
Computer aided design
Experiments

Keywords

  • 3D ICs
  • Hardware
  • Hardware Security
  • Hardware Trojans
  • Integrated circuits
  • Interconnects
  • IP networks
  • IP Protection
  • Layout Camouflaging
  • Manufacturing
  • Metals
  • Security
  • Split Manufacturing
  • Three-dimensional displays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

Cite this

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title = "A Modern Approach to IP Protection and Trojan Prevention: Split Manufacturing for 3D ICs and Obfuscation of Vertical Interconnects",
abstract = "Split manufacturing (SM) and layout camouflaging (LC) are two promising techniques to obscure integrated circuits (ICs) from malicious entities during and after manufacturing. While both techniques enable protecting the intellectual property (IP) of ICs, SM can further mitigate the insertion of hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we strive for the {"}best of both worlds,{"} that is we seek to combine the individual strengths of SM and LC. By jointly extending SM and LC techniques toward 3D integration, an up-and-coming paradigm based on stacking and interconnecting of multiple chips, we establish a modern approach to hardware security. Toward that end, we develop a security-driven CAD and manufacturing flow for 3D ICs in two variations, one for IP protection and one for HT prevention. Essential concepts of that flow are (i) {"}3D splitting{"} of the netlist to protect, (ii) obfuscation of the vertical interconnects (i.e., the wiring between stacked chips), and (iii) for HT prevention, a security-driven synthesis stage. We conduct comprehensive experiments on DRC-clean layouts of multi-million-gate DARPA and OpenCores designs (and others). Strengthened by extensive security analysis for both IP protection and HT prevention, we argue that entering the third dimension is eminent for effective and efficient hardware security.",
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