A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586

V. M. Kaspi, F. P. Gavriil, P. M. Woods, J. B. Jensen, Mallory Roberts, D. Chakrabarty

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume588
    Issue number2 II
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 10 2003

    Fingerprint

    soft gamma repeaters
    outburst
    pulsars
    x rays
    bursts
    profiles
    magnetars
    infrared telescopes
    X Ray Timing Explorer
    radio emission
    pulses
    hardening
    softening
    fluence
    erg
    radio
    augmentation

    Keywords

    • Pulsars: general
    • X-rays: general

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Kaspi, V. M., Gavriil, F. P., Woods, P. M., Jensen, J. B., Roberts, M., & Chakrabarty, D. (2003). A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. Astrophysical Journal, 588(2 II). https://doi.org/10.1086/375683

    A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. / Kaspi, V. M.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.; Jensen, J. B.; Roberts, Mallory; Chakrabarty, D.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 588, No. 2 II, 10.05.2003.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Kaspi, V. M. ; Gavriil, F. P. ; Woods, P. M. ; Jensen, J. B. ; Roberts, Mallory ; Chakrabarty, D. / A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 588, No. 2 II.
    @article{5eca10eae6364004a9e413cdc21a1f1c,
    title = "A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586",
    abstract = "We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.",
    keywords = "Pulsars: general, X-rays: general",
    author = "Kaspi, {V. M.} and Gavriil, {F. P.} and Woods, {P. M.} and Jensen, {J. B.} and Mallory Roberts and D. Chakrabarty",
    year = "2003",
    month = "5",
    day = "10",
    doi = "10.1086/375683",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "588",
    journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "2 II",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586

    AU - Kaspi, V. M.

    AU - Gavriil, F. P.

    AU - Woods, P. M.

    AU - Jensen, J. B.

    AU - Roberts, Mallory

    AU - Chakrabarty, D.

    PY - 2003/5/10

    Y1 - 2003/5/10

    N2 - We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

    AB - We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

    KW - Pulsars: general

    KW - X-rays: general

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0042739580&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0042739580&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1086/375683

    DO - 10.1086/375683

    M3 - Article

    VL - 588

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 2 II

    ER -