A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586

V. M. Kaspi, F. P. Gavriil, P. M. Woods, J. B. Jensen, Mallory Roberts, D. Chakrabarty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume588
Issue number2 II
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2003

Fingerprint

soft gamma repeaters
outburst
pulsars
x rays
bursts
profiles
magnetars
infrared telescopes
X Ray Timing Explorer
radio emission
pulses
hardening
softening
fluence
erg
radio
augmentation

Keywords

  • Pulsars: general
  • X-rays: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. / Kaspi, V. M.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.; Jensen, J. B.; Roberts, Mallory; Chakrabarty, D.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 588, No. 2 II, 10.05.2003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaspi, V. M. ; Gavriil, F. P. ; Woods, P. M. ; Jensen, J. B. ; Roberts, Mallory ; Chakrabarty, D. / A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 588, No. 2 II.
@article{5eca10eae6364004a9e413cdc21a1f1c,
title = "A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586",
abstract = "We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.",
keywords = "Pulsars: general, X-rays: general",
author = "Kaspi, {V. M.} and Gavriil, {F. P.} and Woods, {P. M.} and Jensen, {J. B.} and Mallory Roberts and D. Chakrabarty",
year = "2003",
month = "5",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1086/375683",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "588",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2 II",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous x-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586

AU - Kaspi, V. M.

AU - Gavriil, F. P.

AU - Woods, P. M.

AU - Jensen, J. B.

AU - Roberts, Mallory

AU - Chakrabarty, D.

PY - 2003/5/10

Y1 - 2003/5/10

N2 - We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

AB - We report a major outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586, in which over 80 X-ray bursts were detected in 4 hr using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. The bursts range in duration from 2 ms to 3 s and have fluences in the 2-10 keV band that range from 3 × 10-11 to 5 × 10-9 ergs cm-2. We simultaneously observed increases of the pulsed and persistent X-ray emission by over an order of magnitude relative to quiescent levels. Both decayed significantly during the course of our 14 ks observation. Correlated spectral hardening was also observed, with the spectrum softening during the observation. In addition, we observed a pulse profile change, in which the amplitudes of the two peaks in the pulse profile were swapped. The profile relaxed back to its pre-outburst morphology after ∼6 days. The pulsar also underwent a sudden spin-up (Δv/v = 4 × 10 -6), followed by a large (factor of ∼2) increase in spin-down rate that persisted for more than 18 days. We also observed, using the Gemini North telescope, an infrared enhancement, in which the Ks (2.15 μm) flux increased, relative to that measured in a observation made in 2000, by a factor of ∼3, 3 days post-outburst. The IR counterpart then faded by a factor of ∼2 1 week later. In addition, we report an upper limit of 50 μJy on radio emission at 1.4 GHz 2 days post-outburst. The X-ray properties of this outburst are like those seen only in soft gamma repeaters. This conclusively unifies anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, as predicted uniquely by the magnetar model.

KW - Pulsars: general

KW - X-rays: general

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0042739580&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0042739580&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/375683

DO - 10.1086/375683

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0042739580

VL - 588

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2 II

ER -