5G Uniform linear arrays with beamforming and spatial multiplexing at 28 GHz, 37 GHz, 64 GHz and 71 GHz for outdoor urban communication

A two-level approach

Jaswinder Lota, Shu Sun, Theodore Rappaport, Andreas Demosthenous

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing and beamforming are regarded as key technology enablers for the fifth-generation (5G) millimeter wave (mmWave) mobile radio services. Spatial multiplexing requires sufficiently separated and incoherent antenna array elements, while in the case of beamforming, the antenna array elements need to be coherent and closely spaced. Extensive 28-, 60-, 73 and 80-GHz ultra-wideband propagation measurements in cities of New York City, Austin, Helsinki and Oslo have indicated formation of two or more spatial lobes for the angles-of-departure and angles-of-arrival even for line-of-sight (LOS) transmission, which is an advantageous feature of mmWave channels, indicating that the transmitting and receiving array antenna elements can be co-located, thus enabling a single architecture for both spatial multiplexing and beamforming. In this paper a two-level beamforming architecture for uniform linear arrays is proposed that leverages the formation of these spatial lobes. The antenna array is composed of sub-arrays, and the impact of sub-array spacing on the spectral efficiency is investigated through simulations using a channel simulator named NYUSIM developed based on measured data at mmWave frequencies. Simulation results indicate spectral efficiencies of 18.5-28.1 bits/s/Hz with a sub-array spacing of 16 wavelengths for an outdoor mmWave urban LOS channel. The spectral efficiencies obtained are for single-user (SU) MIMO transmission at the recently allocated 5G carrier frequencies by the Federal Communications Commission in July 2016. The method and results in this paper are useful for designing antenna array architectures for 5G wireless systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Aug 17 2017

Fingerprint

Spatial multiplexing
Antenna Arrays
Linear Array
Beamforming
Antenna arrays
Multiplexing
Millimeter Wave
Millimeter waves
Spectral Efficiency
Communication
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
Spacing
Angle of Arrival
Line
Ultra-wideband (UWB)
Leverage
Simulation
Simulator
Simulators
Wavelength

Keywords

  • 5G
  • 5G mobile communication
  • Antenna arrays
  • Array signal processing
  • Arrays
  • Beam steering
  • beamforming
  • MIMO
  • mmWave
  • Multiplexing
  • spatial multiplexing
  • SU-MIMO
  • Transmitting antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

@article{5332f699e141443589f62fbf9f922d24,
title = "5G Uniform linear arrays with beamforming and spatial multiplexing at 28 GHz, 37 GHz, 64 GHz and 71 GHz for outdoor urban communication: A two-level approach",
abstract = "Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing and beamforming are regarded as key technology enablers for the fifth-generation (5G) millimeter wave (mmWave) mobile radio services. Spatial multiplexing requires sufficiently separated and incoherent antenna array elements, while in the case of beamforming, the antenna array elements need to be coherent and closely spaced. Extensive 28-, 60-, 73 and 80-GHz ultra-wideband propagation measurements in cities of New York City, Austin, Helsinki and Oslo have indicated formation of two or more spatial lobes for the angles-of-departure and angles-of-arrival even for line-of-sight (LOS) transmission, which is an advantageous feature of mmWave channels, indicating that the transmitting and receiving array antenna elements can be co-located, thus enabling a single architecture for both spatial multiplexing and beamforming. In this paper a two-level beamforming architecture for uniform linear arrays is proposed that leverages the formation of these spatial lobes. The antenna array is composed of sub-arrays, and the impact of sub-array spacing on the spectral efficiency is investigated through simulations using a channel simulator named NYUSIM developed based on measured data at mmWave frequencies. Simulation results indicate spectral efficiencies of 18.5-28.1 bits/s/Hz with a sub-array spacing of 16 wavelengths for an outdoor mmWave urban LOS channel. The spectral efficiencies obtained are for single-user (SU) MIMO transmission at the recently allocated 5G carrier frequencies by the Federal Communications Commission in July 2016. The method and results in this paper are useful for designing antenna array architectures for 5G wireless systems.",
keywords = "5G, 5G mobile communication, Antenna arrays, Array signal processing, Arrays, Beam steering, beamforming, MIMO, mmWave, Multiplexing, spatial multiplexing, SU-MIMO, Transmitting antennas",
author = "Jaswinder Lota and Shu Sun and Theodore Rappaport and Andreas Demosthenous",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "17",
doi = "10.1109/TVT.2017.2741260",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology",
issn = "0018-9545",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - 5G Uniform linear arrays with beamforming and spatial multiplexing at 28 GHz, 37 GHz, 64 GHz and 71 GHz for outdoor urban communication

T2 - A two-level approach

AU - Lota, Jaswinder

AU - Sun, Shu

AU - Rappaport, Theodore

AU - Demosthenous, Andreas

PY - 2017/8/17

Y1 - 2017/8/17

N2 - Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing and beamforming are regarded as key technology enablers for the fifth-generation (5G) millimeter wave (mmWave) mobile radio services. Spatial multiplexing requires sufficiently separated and incoherent antenna array elements, while in the case of beamforming, the antenna array elements need to be coherent and closely spaced. Extensive 28-, 60-, 73 and 80-GHz ultra-wideband propagation measurements in cities of New York City, Austin, Helsinki and Oslo have indicated formation of two or more spatial lobes for the angles-of-departure and angles-of-arrival even for line-of-sight (LOS) transmission, which is an advantageous feature of mmWave channels, indicating that the transmitting and receiving array antenna elements can be co-located, thus enabling a single architecture for both spatial multiplexing and beamforming. In this paper a two-level beamforming architecture for uniform linear arrays is proposed that leverages the formation of these spatial lobes. The antenna array is composed of sub-arrays, and the impact of sub-array spacing on the spectral efficiency is investigated through simulations using a channel simulator named NYUSIM developed based on measured data at mmWave frequencies. Simulation results indicate spectral efficiencies of 18.5-28.1 bits/s/Hz with a sub-array spacing of 16 wavelengths for an outdoor mmWave urban LOS channel. The spectral efficiencies obtained are for single-user (SU) MIMO transmission at the recently allocated 5G carrier frequencies by the Federal Communications Commission in July 2016. The method and results in this paper are useful for designing antenna array architectures for 5G wireless systems.

AB - Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing and beamforming are regarded as key technology enablers for the fifth-generation (5G) millimeter wave (mmWave) mobile radio services. Spatial multiplexing requires sufficiently separated and incoherent antenna array elements, while in the case of beamforming, the antenna array elements need to be coherent and closely spaced. Extensive 28-, 60-, 73 and 80-GHz ultra-wideband propagation measurements in cities of New York City, Austin, Helsinki and Oslo have indicated formation of two or more spatial lobes for the angles-of-departure and angles-of-arrival even for line-of-sight (LOS) transmission, which is an advantageous feature of mmWave channels, indicating that the transmitting and receiving array antenna elements can be co-located, thus enabling a single architecture for both spatial multiplexing and beamforming. In this paper a two-level beamforming architecture for uniform linear arrays is proposed that leverages the formation of these spatial lobes. The antenna array is composed of sub-arrays, and the impact of sub-array spacing on the spectral efficiency is investigated through simulations using a channel simulator named NYUSIM developed based on measured data at mmWave frequencies. Simulation results indicate spectral efficiencies of 18.5-28.1 bits/s/Hz with a sub-array spacing of 16 wavelengths for an outdoor mmWave urban LOS channel. The spectral efficiencies obtained are for single-user (SU) MIMO transmission at the recently allocated 5G carrier frequencies by the Federal Communications Commission in July 2016. The method and results in this paper are useful for designing antenna array architectures for 5G wireless systems.

KW - 5G

KW - 5G mobile communication

KW - Antenna arrays

KW - Array signal processing

KW - Arrays

KW - Beam steering

KW - beamforming

KW - MIMO

KW - mmWave

KW - Multiplexing

KW - spatial multiplexing

KW - SU-MIMO

KW - Transmitting antennas

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028458994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85028458994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TVT.2017.2741260

DO - 10.1109/TVT.2017.2741260

M3 - Article

JO - IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

JF - IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

SN - 0018-9545

ER -